Bioecological Model Of Human Development
Child Family & Society: SOC312
Dr. Tracey Tyree
Urie Bronfenbrenner led to the development of the ecological theories that shape development. He depicts four systems that contain norms, rules and norms that influence a child’s development. Renamed ‘bioecological systems theory’, emphasis is that the biological changes in a child are the primary sources of any development while the external factors are huge contributors ‘will steer the development’, (Addison, J.T, 1992). It has been held that the body supports and directs all body actions and operations influenced by the outward interaction with the environment. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000). Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions - both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child’s parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is key to this theory. At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child’s microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: the connection between the child’s teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc.
The exosystem – this layer defines the larger social system in which the child does not function directly. The...