The Battle of Pharsalus

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The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus "Pompey the Great". Pompey had the backing of a majority of senators, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. Pompey deployed his army in three lines, 10 men deep. He posted his most experienced legions on the flanks dispersing his new recruits along the center. In total, Caesar counted 110 complete cohorts in the Pompeian army, about 45,000 men. This is Principal of War is Mass. Caesar knew that with the size of his army Pompey would be overwhelmed. This Principal is perhaps one of the most important if not the most important. Pompey also placed 600 horses on his right flank toward the River Enipeus, a natural barrier that protected the wings of both armies. He had given command of the cavalry to Labienus, the former commander of Caesar's favorite X legion. He deployed the rest of the army on his left together with his auxiliary troops. Pompey's plan was to allow Caesar's infantry to advance, have his cavalry attack and push back the numerically inferior Julian horses, and then attack Caesar's infantry from behind. Pompey had disclosed his battle plans to companions days before the battle, and Caesar became aware of them. This is the Surprise Principal, Pompey thought that he would be able to out maneuver Caesar’s army but Caesar found out about beforehand giving him the advantage. Caesar also deployed in three lines. He arrayed his men 6 men deep. He rested his left on the marshland of the river and he positioned all his cavalry on the right, against Pompey's squadrons. Behind them he hid light troops, carrying javelins and other weapons, in anticipation of Pompey's cavalry. Caesar himself commanded his cavalry. He also had 2,000 legionaries as reserves. He posted the...
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