Within the past few years, the numbers of women are holding the powerful positions increasingly, even in some industries and organizations which are mainly male-dominated. In addition, high percentage of women who are attending in the workplace or starting their own business have proved that they can do well what men can do in management roles. However, there still is a glass ceiling that women cannot break. This report will discuss three main barriers that women face to become leaders. Family life cycle stage
Childbearing year is a significant barrier for most of female managers. This is because they are invisible in the office in a long time by taking pregnancy leave. For instance, women in Irish can have 42 weeks away from work to take-care their newborn baby (Cross, 2010, p.110). In contrast, male cannot have day off as long as women and it will not interrupt in their works. As a result, female are less likely to get promotion because they have “miss out on so much” while they take on the leave (Cross, 2010, p.110). Therefore, the problem for most of women leaderships is when they decide to having children. They have to choose between their family and career (Development manager, public sector organization in Cross, 2010, p.110). Gender stereotype in workplaces
According to Berthoin, Antal and Izraeli, the highest obstacle for women in leaderships is stereotype that “manager equals male” (1993 in Hoobler, Wayne and Lemmon, 2009, p.941). In organizations, the contrast between the gender-typical stereotypes of men and women are extremely large. Lyness and Heilman believe that women characteristics are generous and caring while men are strong to deal with difficult situations and capable to achieve their goals (2006 in Hoobler, Wayne and Lemmon, 2009, p.942). In addition, stereotyping toward women’s roles, housewife and maternity, has deeply implanted in religious, cultural and social, so it is a problem which cannot be disappeared in one day....
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