THE BALANCE OF DORIAN GRAY’S STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY IN OSCAR WILDE’S NOVEL THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY: A STUDY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
Background of the study
Human lives with their desire though some of their desire are failed to deliver because of the norms border. As a human, we live in a community and it is impossible to do as we please. Norms play the role as law where it limits our behavior and make the standard law points about what we can do or what we cannot do. This law usually opposes our desire. When we choose to follow our desire rather than the norms, our society will see us as a bad person. It is because they belive that life has to be bordered by norms and people cannot do as they please without considering their social norms.
We can see that issue in a novel titled The Picture of Dorian Gray. It is a novel written by Oscar Wilde. This novel appeared as the lead story in Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890, and printed as the July 1890 issue of this magazine. Dorian’s Gray is the only novel Oscar Wilde had ever written. Other literary works that are made by Oscar Wilde are The important of Being Earnest (1895), Ravenna, a poem which won Newdigate Prize in 1878, etc. The Picture of Dorian Gray is a novel about a young handsome and wealthy man who is corrupted and influenced by Lord Henry Wotton to jump into the new concept of hedonism. He kills his own friend, Basil Hallward, who paints his picture. His picture changes along his sins. His picture gets uglier and uglier. In the end, he is death by accident. Weirdly, his picture changes back into its original state which is a picture of a handsome youngman. Writers choose to approach this story using Freudian Psychoanalysis with the tenet structure of personality and concentrating on its Id, Ego, and Superego. According to Freud, we are born with our Id. The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle. The ego is based on the reality principle. Its the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our jugdement. Many reference refer superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. Statement of the problem
According to the described background above, writers would like to formulate the statement of the problems as follows: 1. How does the balance of id, ego, and superego of Dorian Gray in Oscar Wilde’s novel The Picture of Dorian Gray? 2. How does Dorian Gray’s structure of personality affect his social life?
Objective of the study
According to the statement of the problems, writers would like to formulate the objective of the study as follows: 1. To analyse the balance of id, ego, and superego in Dorian Gray’s personality. 2. To elaborate the effect of Dorian Gray’s structure of personality in his social life. Significance of the study
The purpose of this study is to acknowledge the structure of personality which works on the Dorian’s Gray. Further, by elaborating the id; ego; and superego from the novel, it will be a value in our life. Scope and limitation
This study will be limited on the id, ego, and superego of structure of personality which is concepted by Sigmund Freud. There are some parts that could be analyzed by some theories. Here, writers will limit the Dorian Gray for the main object which is analyzed on this study. Theoritical background
Psychoanalytic criticism is a literature approaches by revealing the causes of our behavior whether it is inadequate or even sick, based on our psychological condition. (Wikipedia) Psychoanalytic theory was first laid out by an Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Psychoanalysis criticism helps identify human behavior that applies to the literary works....
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