The Arab Uprisings

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Contents
Letter of Transmittal5
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:7
Introduction to Arab Spring9
Definition9
Origin of the term9
Countries involved10
General History of Arab10
Conquests and Expansion of Arabs:11
Union of Arab Countries – The Arab League:11
The Arab Common Market:12
Rising Disputes:12
Arab Cold War:13
Various Conflicts:13
Arab-Israeli conflict:13
Iran-Iraq war:13
Lebanese Civil War:14
Western Sahara War:14
Yemen Civil War:15
Somali Civil War and Ethiopian-Somali War:15
History of Democracy in Arab World:16
Presidential republics:18
Absolute monarchy (kingship):18
Constitutional monarchy:19
Islamic governments:19
2011 Democracy Index:19
Causes of Arab Spring22
Arab Monarchies:23
Human Right Violation:24
Government Corruptions:25
Corruption Perceptions Index27
Outcomes of Corruption:27
ROLE OF MEDIA IN ARAB SPRING:28
Number of demographic structural factors29
Economic Decline, Unemployment and Increasing poverty:29
Social Unrest30
OUTCOMES OF ARAB UPRISINGS31
ARAB SPRING IN ETHNIC SCOPE:31
IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON ARAB SPRING:34
IMPACTS OF ARAB SPRING ON WORLD:36
INTERNATIONAL REACTIONS TO THE ARAB SPRING:38
REACTION OF PAKISTAN TO THE ARAB SPRING:39
ARAB SPRING’S EFFECTS ON WORLD ECONOMY:40
CONCLUSION:41
BIBLIOGRAPHY42

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION

Figure 117
Figure 237

Table 121
Table 226

Letter of Transmittal
Amna Nafees and Malik Athar Iqbal,
G.C University,
Lahore.
December 19, 2012.
Mr. Mahboob Ahmed,
Department of English,
G.C University,
Lahore.
Dear Mr. Ahmad:
We are submitting herewith our report entitled “Arab spring – it causes and outcomes” as partial fulfillment of the English ‘Communication skills’ course requirement. We went through many news articles and reports to determine that what were the real causes and factors behind the Arab spring, when it happened, how Arab government dealt with their people on their massive up-rise, what was the reaction of world, what was the impact of Arab spring on world, and finally what we concluded from this massive uprising. Based on our research we found that lack of democracy can easily lead a country towards in-stability and devastation .We also found that if government of a country doesn’t provide basic economic reforms, freedom of speech and political freedom to their people than it will definitely lead its country toward a massive crisis that will not only shatter and stumble that government but also badly affect the economy, living style of people and image of that country. Through our research we are able to conclude that for a country’s stability and better future every person of a country should be allowed to speak and vote freely. The country should possess a constitution defining the sovereignty of people and judicial courts of that country and also the limitations and boundaries of a government and a proper system of election. Thank you for giving us an opportunity to make a report on such a vast and revealing topic. We hope that this report will merit your approval. Sincerely,

Amna Nafees and Malik Athar Iqbal

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:
Arab spring refers to the democratic up-rising of Arab people against their government that arose independently and spread across the Arab world in 2011. The Arab up-rise was originated in Tunisia in December 2010 followed by the self immolation of an educated but un-employed 26 year old man Mohammad Baouzizi and thus soon that up-rise took hold in many other Arab countries like Egypt, Yemen, Libya, Syria, Bahrain and many others. Through our research we found out that the lack of democracy and monarchy system were the main causes of Arab spring. However by the 1960’s the monarchies of Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen had been transformed into republics but our research showed us that there was no proper democracy in these countries and critics assert that these were...
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