Since the commencement of human existence, personal qualities such as: the pursuit of knowledge, the desire to expand ones horizons, and the inclination to establish and follow a dream, has significantly impacted society. From the earliest days, right up until the present time, a number of accomplishments have filled the vast expanse of time. Such accomplishments span from exemplary literary works, such as those of Cicero, Virgil, and Goethe; to philosophical breakthroughs of men like Rene Descartes who said, “I think therefore I am”, and finally to the unprecedented discoveries in the fields of mathematics and science. Among all the civilizations of time, those of the Pre-Columbian Era seem to have successfully applied mathematical concepts, mainly geometry and algebra, in a somewhat uncanny manner. One cannot all but question how engineers of today’s time, men and women with almost limitless resources, suffer periodic setbacks, while structures of the primitive Pre-Columbians have remained largely intact up until the present day. Clearly no one can compare the Golden Gate Bridge, Lincoln Tunnel, and Empire State building to Pre-Columbian structures, yet the simplistic success of these ancient people causes substantial curiosity. It seems, although only a personal conjecture, that through the analysis of modern day mathematics, insight into the minds of the long lost masterminds behind some of the worlds greatest architecture and the mathematics emphasized in their extraordinary works, can be ascertained. The ancient Maya, although a civilization that first emerged during the pre-classic period, actually have a lot of similarities to the people of the modern era. Socially, politically, and even creatively, they were far more advanced then many may have assumed. However, the advancements that the Mayans made in mathematics were both intriguing and impressive. Formally, the Mayans are credited with the development of a number system based on a combination of lines and dots, and although not literally known to be geometers, like Euclid for example, geometry was an important part of their culture (Schele 82). Through simply looking at the structures of the Mayans, and then studying the geometry available to the world of academia, a precise realization of almost every form of this ancient math that the Mayans capitalized on, can be discovered. The first and most obvious geometric structures are the ancient pyramids. These temples were built mainly for religious purposes and the glorification of the king. Yet, regardless of how observative, or lacking, the everyday Mayan may have been to their surroundings, the pyramids were an expression and home of the era’s geometric beauty (Schele 105). While building pyramids, the Mayans, whether they realized it or not, were applying some very important geometric related concepts. Although there are probably countless books written on the geometry of a pyramid, three main focuses seem intertwined in most of the Mayans work. Those areas that seem to be the most important are: center of gravity, parallel lines, and congruent sides. Although such focuses may seem rather basic, they are in fact some of the most important concepts surrounding the world of pyramids. The first of these three main areas, center of gravity, may at a glance be puzzling in the sense of its relation to geometry, or even a pyramid for that matter. Yet, a center of gravity is not only geometric, but also played a paramount role in the Mayan pyramids. Consider a tall pyramid with a terrible center of gravity, caused by, for example, one side of the pyramid consisting of a stone that weighs three times more then that used for the other sides. Although it may be fine for the first one hundred years, or even two hundred, a tall structure with a poor center of gravity is bound to crumble over time, and certainly will not last hundreds upon hundred of years. The fact that they are still standing...

...Long before any white man ever set foot in this hemisphere, there were fully functional and highly developed societies here. These civilizations were sophisticated, could even be considered more advanced than the European nations at the time. While the rest of the Eastern world was in the dark Middle Ages, the people here were flourishing.
The Aztecs were the Native American people who dominated northern México at the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernan CORTES in the...

...their roots and true history. Knowledge about pre-Columbiancivilizations comes from two main sources: archaeological remains and the accounts written by European white men. A result of the Conquest by the Europeans they Aztec, Mayan, and Inca Civilizations were virtually wiped out. There was a major loss to humanity here, first of all it destroyed many Ideas of these people that do not affect or Present day thinking. The history of...

...DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract...

...“Pre – Columbian Americas”
The New World before Columbus, was not empty and unknown before his discoveries. Europeans had explored in the New World, they came into contact with people whom Columbus by mistaKE called them Indians. It is unknow where they came from and when these first Americans came to the North and South America, but it is cleared that they lived in the new world centuries before the Europeans came. The Indians were not unified they were...

...Pre-Columbian America
There is no certain answers as to how precolumbian natives got to America. There are many theories based on hard evidence. The Paleo-Indians, archaeologists refer to as the first americans. At this point there was no official scripture in their society. Paleo Indians seemed to have paved the way for many other cultures to settle. All though in many cases these native settlers were very different from one...

...Introduction
Mathematics is one of the fundamental tools in analyzing and understanding astronomy. Astronomers use mathematics to do basic conversion, calculate brightness, density and temperature and improve the understanding of astronomical images.
Most ancient astronomers views celestial objects on behalf of gods. They studied celestial objects with the hope of discovering the unknown of the world. In ancient China, astronomer is an occupation that...

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