THE APPLICATION OF COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH IN TEACHING ENGLISH SEAKING CLASS Introduction
As an international language, at the present day, English has been used and learnt by the people all over the world, include by Indonesian students. Based on the history, English is main language which is used in Britain, USA, and many others foreign countries, where it differs in grammatical, vocabularies, and pronunciation. Besides that, there are many words in English which is derived from French which is coming through the colonial peoples and widely used in environmental governance itself. Because of this reason, there are many students who had the difficulties in learning English, especially in speaking and listening subjects. Those difficulties often cause the students’ anxiousness. Anxiety is associated with feeling of uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, or worry. Scovel (1978: 134) defined anxiety as “a state of apprehension, a vague”. If this situation allowed continuing, the acquisition of foreign languages which is desirable is impossible. Language anxiety has been said by many researchers to influence language learning, anxiety may cause a poor performance (Scovel, 1991). So, to overcome this problem, one of the ways which can be used by the teachers is Community Language Learning. The teachers can use this approach to build students’ self-confidence and security so that they can get the braveness and freedom when they are trying to speak in English either in or out of classroom. And in this essay, I would like to discuss about Community Language Learning,
Actually, Community Language Learning is an old method in 1970s. It is well known as a humanistic-oriented methodology which the people now often call this method as a humanistic approach to language learning. The terms of humanistic used here refers to the mixture of all other emotions and feelings of learners in the teaching learning process which includes self-esteem and pried after their accomplishment in their own efforts and the creation of the cooperation atmosphere in the classroom (Subiyakto, 1988: 48). Historically, Community Language Learning was created by Charles A Curran, a specialist in the counseling program and a professor of psychology in Logola University of Chicago, USA. He applied the concept of psychotherapy in form of counseling to his students soon after he was inspired by Carl Rogers. According to Brown (2000:103), Carl Rogers has a way in viewing education that in order to facilitate learning so that each individual in the group can be valued and prized appropriately, students and teacher should join together. This is the main reason why Curran created special method which is called community language learning. In this method, there are two roles that should be played in the process of language teaching and learning. The first role is a counselor, which is played by the teacher and the second role is the clients, which is played by students. Theoretically, this method is based on several theories in which his article, Reva Al-Giffari investigates some of the following theories. First, is cognitive and affective areas (Subiyakto, 1988). It means that the learner gets all of the inputs from outside world through his mind, which can be considered as his cognitive ability and also through his feeling, which can be considered as his affective ability. Creating a learning atmosphere that facilitates a learner to communicate and interact with others freely seems to be the best way to maximize a learner cognitive ability as well as his affective ability. Second, according to Pateda (1991: 103) who quoted from Atmodarsono (1984: 22) said that as an effort to learn a second language, community language learning is based on several factors in a learner’s mind such as attitude, emotion, and motivation. It is clear that CLL method is dealing mostly with the internal factors of a language learner. Pateda (1991: 103) also...
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