A Research Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the College of Medicine Cebu Doctors’ University Mandaue City, Philippines
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement Research in Medicine II Block I, Module 2
Avanceña, Glory O. Booc, Mark Henry C. Burgos, Dan Samuel S. Cabang, Eloise Maxine B. Conopio, Arnel Y.
Cordova, Jose Reginald K. Gozo, Leoniza Gloria S. Pavillar, Lounard N. Tan, Marie Andone L. Tancinco Aldo Ian A.
Leah P. Acibar, M.D. Research Adviser
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Background Review of Related Literature Significance of the Study Objectives Statement of Hypotheses Scope and Limitation MATERIALS AND METHODS Research Design Research Locale Research Respondents Research Instrument Data Collection Procedures Preliminary Procedure Experimental Procedure Actual Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis DEFINITION OF TERMS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A. Transmittal Letters B. Certification of Authenticity C. Data Collection Sheet D. Time Table E. Budget Summary F. Sample Size Determination G. Computation of Concentrations RESEARCHERS’ BIODATA 1 1 1 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 11 13 13 14 15 17 17 22 24 25 26 27 28 29
INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The increasing microbial resistance to drugs is a great threat that hampers the treatment of many illnesses. The indiscriminate abuse of antimicrobials together with the lack of proper identification of the causative organism and patient demands, have contributed to the rise of resistant strains of microbes to various drugs. Currently more than 70% of bacteria associated with hospital-acquired infections are now resistant to drugs that were once effective against it (Brunton et. al. 2006). Although new drugs are being created to overcome this problem, most of these new drugs are merely modifications of pre-existing drugs. It is feared that the rate of new drug production against currently resistant microbes might not be fast enough to counter the effects of increasing antimicrobial resistance (Brunton et. al. 2006). Rather than modifying pre-existing drugs, this research hopes to see if mature guava leaves will exhibit antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacillus, well-known for its increasing resistance to many drugs. If this research proves successful, it is hoped that future researches will dwell deeper into the chemical properties of the leaves and identify its active antimicrobial component(s). This could potentially lead to a brand new drug which could be used against the increasing resistance of Pseudomonas, and possibly of other organisms. Review of Related Literature Psidium guajava, from the family Myrtaceae, is considered native to Mexico and extends throughout South America, Europe, Africa and Asia It grows in all the tropical
and subtropical areas of the world and adapts to different climatic conditions but prefers dry climates. P. guajava is a small tree with a height of 10m having thin, smooth, patchy, peeling bark. Guava leaves are opposite, short-petiolate, the blade oval with prominent pinnate veins, 5–15 cm long. Flowers are somewhat showy, petals whitish up to 2 cm long and with numerous stamens. Its fruit is yellow, fleshy, globose to ovoid berry about 5 cm in diameter with an edible pink mesocarp containing numerous small hard white seeds. There has been a tremendous interest in this plant as evidenced by the voluminous work (Gutierrez et al. 2008). Different parts of the plant are used in the indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments such as wounds, ulcers, and cholera. Pharmacological investigations indicated that its bark, fruit, and leaves possess antibacterial, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, spasmolytic, and CNS depressant activities (Macatol et.al 1998). In the...