The Antibacterial Effect of Papaya Leaves Extract on Staphylococcus Episdermidis

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The Antibacterial Effect of
Papaya (Carica) Leaves Extract on Staphylococcus epidermidis

Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
Special Science High School
Martin P. Posadas Avenue, San Carlos City, Pangasinan

Researcher

S.Y. 2010-2011

The Antibacterial Effect of
Papaya (Carica) Leaves Extract on
Staphylococcus epidermidis

A thesis
Presented to the
Faculty and staff of the
Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
Special Science High School
M.P. Posadas Ave., San Carlos City, Pangasinan

In partial fulfillment of the
Requirement in Science Research II

By:
Researcher
(November 2010)

i
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………….……………………..……….…………………i APPPROVAL SHEET……………………………..……………….……ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………..………...……..……….…………iii DEDICATION……………………..…………………………………….iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………….…….v TABLES ………………….……..………………………….…………...vii FIGURES.………………………………….…………………..………..ix RESEARCH ABSTRACT…………………………………………..……x

CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………………………….1
Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………3
Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………4
Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….4
Null Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………..5
Significance of the Study……………………………………………………5
Scope and Delimitation………………………………………………………7
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………….8

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND
STUDIES
Related Literature…………………………………………………………….10
Related Studies…………………………………………………………………13
Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies…………………..14

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CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design………………………………………………………………15 Research Subject…………………………………………………………….15
Research Locale……………………………………………………………….16
Research Materials……………………………………………………………16
Data Gathering Procedures………………………………………………16
Biostatistical Treatment……………………………………………………26

CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

CHAPTER V: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings………………………………………………………32
Conclusions………………………………………………………………………33
Recommendations……………………………………………………………34

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………….35 APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………37 APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………41 APPENDIX C……………………………………………………..…….44 APPENDIX D………………………………………………..………....45 CURRICULUM VITAE…………………………………………………46

vi
TABLES

Table1. The Active Constituents of Papaya (Carica) Leaves

|Active Constituents |Descriptions/Uses | |Alkaloids |Alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans and other animals. | | |Alkaloids such as carpaine works by constricting blood vessels and depressing | | |autonomic nervous system activity. These compounds contribute to the | | |insecticide's effectiveness in controlling the larvae of the anopheles | | |mosquito, which carries malaria. | |Tannins |Tannins are polyphenols usually found in large quantities in the bark of trees | | |where it act as a barrier for micro-organisms like bacteria and fungi and | | |protect the tree. They were used in dyeing, photography, refining beer and wine| | |as well as an astringent in medicines. |

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Table2. The Effectivity of Papaya (Carica) Leaves Extract and the Positive Control on Staphylococcus epidermidis

| Product |Trial 1 |Trial 2...
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