The Animal Sector of Agriculture

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  • Published : December 2, 2012
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Contents

1.0Introduction4
2.0The Importance of Animal Agriculture4
3.0Prospects of Animal Agriculture5
3.1Sustainable Mixed Farming System with Livestock5
3.2Animal Waste as Valuable Resource6
3.3Use of Processed Manure as Feed7
3.4Higher Productive Breeds7
3.5Integration of Cattle under Oil Palm8
3.6Metabolic Modifiers and Animal Agriculture9
4.0Future Challenges of Animal Agriculture10
4.1Effects of Animal Agriculture May Causes Climate Change In Future11
4.2Raising Water Pollution11
4.3Potential Source of Diseases12
4.4Malodor/Air Pollution will Rise13
4.5Behavioral / Genetic Changes in Agricultural Animals14
4.6Chemical Compounds in Animal Agriculture May Leads to Resistance in Bacteria That Are Relevant in Human Diseases15
4.7Processing Management of Wastes Prior to Feeding Animals has a Large Chance of Transmitting Diseases16
4.8Risk of Loss of biodiversity in future17
5.0How to Overcome Those Challenges17
6.0Conclusion19
7.0References19

1.0 Introduction

The animal sector of agriculture has undergone major changes in the last several decades, a fact that has drawn the attention of policymakers and the public. Agricultural animals of today are considerably different than their predecessors. Contemporary agricultural animals evolved from those that had traits favorable for domestication. These traits include agreeable temperaments, readily adaptable to new environments, ability to live in groups, weak mate bonds, and delivery of precocious [exhibit mature qualities (locomotion, feeding, etc.) soon after birth] offspring. Remarkable scientific advances (especially during the last 50 years) in animal agriculture have enabled humans to expand their capacity to produce food to meet the growing demands imposed by the expanding world population. Improvements in animal nutrition, health, management, and genetic selection have had major impacts on the advances achieved in animal agriculture. A greater understanding of animal physiology has resulted in the development of a number of chemical compounds that are available to the producer to improve animal health and to increase the productive efficiency of animal agriculture. The main purpose of animal agriculture is to prepare sustainable livestock, that mean being able to harvest the same quantity of meat or fiber from a given land base indefinitely or the removal of meat, milk or fiber does not degrade the ability of the land to continue providing the inputs needed for further removal of the product. Examples of livestock are cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, chicken, duck and etc. 2.0 The Importance of Animal Agriculture

Although animal agriculture is not a major contributor to foreign exchange earner for the country, it is playing a significant role in providing food for local consumption. Large commercial enterprises incorporate the principal of vertical integration. Production under control environment in enclosed housing system is gaining more popular. Pork production represents the second most important sector. The trend in the industry now is toward transformation from numerous small scale farmers to fewer huge commercial entities. In rural area livestock rearing is an important activity to supplement the family income, as the objective of rearing animal is for family consumption, usually the number of animal reared is small and has no apparent threat to Environment. Beef production which is derived from cattle and buffalo, is mainly the activity of the small holders. There are however a number of commercial farms in the state which adopt intensive system. Dairy industry contributes about 40 percent of local fresh milk requirement which amounting to 4.64 million liters worth RM 6.96 million. Through careful and continuous livestock development projects, today the non-ruminant sector, particularly pig and poultry have expanded rapidly from mere a...
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