The Clash of Norms and Interest
Agus Catur Aryanto Putro
Department of International Relations
Faculty of Social and Political Sciences
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY
I declare that this paper is my own work and has not been submitted in any form for another assignment at any course of any university or other institution of tertiary education. Where information has been obtained from other publications of my own, published both individually and jointly, appropriate acknowledgement has been given. All other information obtained from the published and unpublished work of other authors has been acknowledged in the text, and a full list of references is given.
May, 31st 2011
Agus Catur Aryanto Putro
Student’s No: 0906524186
The world insofar has been reflected into a different two sided coin, that each contradicts to another. Utilizing natural resources for the sake of fulfilling human’s needs has been drastically increasing even less since capitalism begins in order to maximize productions and profits. As a result, the environment becomes victims – the degradation towards nature appears. The United Nations Environment Program’s Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, completed in March 2005, found that approximately 60 per cent of the ecosystem services that support life on Earth are being degraded or used unsustainably (UNEP 2005). Likewise, the 1960s is typically taken to mark the birth of the ‘modern’ environment movement as a widespread and persistent social movement that has publicized and criticized the environmental ‘side-effects’ of the long economic boom following the Second World War. Such movements demanded for the awareness of environmental degradations as impacts of massive natural resources exploration as well as to rethink the relationship between economy and the nature. Thus, in early 1990s, the green International Relations theory emerged demanding a normative branch (concerned with questions of justice, rights, democracy, citizenship, the state, and the environment), and a political economy branch (concerned with understanding the relationship between the state, the economy, and the environment). Movements in the name of environment were inspired by the emerge of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy in the 1970s, based on anthropocentrism (human centre) until ecocentrism (nature centre) which guided the norms and ethics why human should take care of their environment. The philosophy of environmentalism begins from the question whether the existing environmental ethic is sufficient enough to provide justification for the environmental duties of humans. From existing issues on degradation of environment or ecological crisis, analysts then try to shape what we call environmental ethics and green theory in order to overcome the problems based on their consideration for betterment of the nature itself through their lens as humans. However, debates are still happening in the surface that all ethics and theories related to the conservation of the environment are made by humans themselves. One side argues that humans cannot be separated per se from their interests while another argues that humans can be neutral from their own interests. 1.2 Research Question
Looking into the debates that are still ongoing arguing about whether humans’ objectivity towards the judgment of the ideal human-nature relationship can be established, the writer will try to analyze why the debates happen based on their basis of thinking. Therefore, this paper will then question, “Do environmental ethics and green theory really contribute to the environment based on norms rather than interests?” 1.3 Conceptual Framework
To help the writer examine the problem above, this paper will use several concepts regarding to the key words that are then expected to enable provide comprehensive...