The Amount of Time a Cell Spends in Each Stage of Mitosis

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Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to calculate the amount of time that was spent by a cell in each of the phases of mitosis. Also, it is used to be able to compare the process of mitosis between plant and animal cells.

Background:
Mitosis: This is the process by which a cell duplicates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus in order to generate two identical daughter nuclei. •Interphase: This particular stage is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). During all three phases, the cell grows by producing proteins and other organelles within the cytoplasm. However, chromosomes are replicated only during the S phase. In all, a cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and divides (M). •Prophase: By this point, all the genetic information in the nucleus of the cell is in a loose coil called a chromatin. At the start of prophase, chromatin condenses together into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome. •Metaphase: At this stage, the centromeres of the chromosomes align evenly along the metaphase plate in which they prepare to separate. This even alignment is due to the counterbalance of the pulling powers generated by the opposing kinetochores; kind of like tug-of-war between humans •Anaphase: Two events occur during this vital stage in mitosis. First, the proteins that bind sister chromatids together are cleaved, allowing them to separate. These sister chromatids turned sister chromosomes are pulled apart by shortening kinetochore microtubules and toward the centrosomes to which they are attached. Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pushing the centrosomes apart to opposite ends of the cell. •Telophase: In this final stage of Mitosis, the sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope, using fragments of the parent cell's nuclear membrane, forms around each set of separated sister...
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