The American Pageant 13th Edition Chapter 2 Outline

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Chapter 2: The Planting of English America

I. England's Imperial Settings
>> transformation of the New World
> Native American population nearly extinguished due to disease > 10% of India population from 1492 survived
> thousands of African slaves were brought over (Caribbean and Brazilian plantations) >> North America
> remained largely unexplored
Spanish ---> Santa Fe 1610
French---> Quebec 1608
English---> Jamestown VA 1607
>> religious conflict
> King Henry VIII broke off from the Roman Catholic church in the 1530s > English Protestant Reformation
> Protestant Elizabeth is crowned queen
> Protestantism becomes dominant and rivalry with Catholic Spain intensifies >> Ireland
> Ireland under English rule since twelfth century > Irish (catholic) seeks help from Spain
> 1570-80s English troops defeated Irish uprisings > Protestant landlords from Scotland and England were placed in Ireland > Irish seen as 'barbaric' by the English

II. Elizabeth Energizes England
>> English buccaneers
> sought to promote goals of Protestantism
> plundered and seized Spanish ships, raided Spanish settlements > England and Spain were technically at 'peace'
> Francis Drake returned in 1580 with Spanish treasures - netted profits of 4,600 percent to financial backers - Queen Elizabeth helped support in secrecy
- was knighted (angered Spanish)
>> first colonizations
> coast of Newfoundland
- failed when Sir Humphrey Gilbert (promoter) died at sea in 1583 > Roanoke colony
- Sir Walter Raleigh inspired by brother ^
- group of settlers landed in 1585 in Roanoke Island NC (off the coast of Virginia) - colony mysteriously disappeared
>> naval battle: Spain vs. England
> the "Invincible Armada" created by Philip II of Spain > fought in 1588 (130 ships) in the English Channel > English were swifter and more maneuverable
> Spanish were heavily damaged and suffered in a storm (the "Protestant wind") > marked the end of Spanish imperial dreams in the New World > ensured England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic >> English patriotism

> golden age of literature (Shakespeare)
> Spain signed peace treaty in 1604
> planting of English colonial empire in the New World

III. England on the Eve of Empire
>> England's scepter'd isle
> 1550-1600 population of 3 million to 4 million
> landlords were 'enclosing' croplands for sheep grazing > small farmers were forced into tenancy or to leave the land > wool trade supplied early immigrants
> economic depression hit and farmers became unemployed > surplus population
>> English colonization
> joint stock company was perfected in early 17th century and provided money for colonization > peace with Spain helped colonize
> people moved due to unemployment, adventure, markets, and religious freedom

IV. England Plant the Jamestown Seedling
>> the Virginia Company of London (join stock company)
> received charter from King James I for settlement in the New World > gold and the desire to find a passage through America to the Indies attracted many > needed to endure for a few years until profits come in > colonists needed to profit quickly for the company or be abandoned > charter guaranteed over sea settlers the same rights as Englishmen >> early Jamestown

> three ships landed near Chesapeake Bay and were attacked by Indians >...
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