The American Era

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The American Era
Historical Background
* The Filipino revolutionists won against the Spaniards who colonized us for more than 300 years. * The Fil-American war resulted in the defeat of Gen. Miguel Malvar in 1903. * The American Rule was influenced by two factors:

1.) EDUCATION- many were given a chance to study and English was used as the medium of instruction.
2.) WRITERS- went through stages of development to acquire enough proficiency in the new language - imitative of the style and the subject matters of the American and European authors * Filipino writers went into all forms of literature like news, reporting, poetry, stories, plays, essays, novels, etc. Their writings clearly depicted their love of country and their longings for independence. * Imitation soon faded, writers began to turn to: native ideas and circumstances- inspiration for their writings. Movement Against the U.S. Colonialism

* the printing press was used to block the American culture from entering the Philippine lifestyle * Newspapers in our different dialects flourished all over the archipelago. * *Writers were given the chance to show and prove the true talent of the Filipinos * *Writers during these period drew ideas from the Propaganda Movement and the Revolutionary Characteristics of Literature During American Regime

Three groups of writers contributed to Philippine Literature during this period.

* Literature in Spanish
* The inspiration of Filipino writers in Spanish was Rizal. * Rizal’s two novels (Noli and Fili) contained the best qualities of a novel ever written, in English or in Filipino. * Those who were inspired to write in praise of Rizal were Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jesus Balmori, Manuel Bernabe, Claro M. Recto, etc. Example: by Manuel Bernabe

Recodar! Ay del alma que recuerde!
la quiebra que ha sufrido la ilusion
la memoria es la fiera que nos muerde
el pobre Corazon

English translation:
To remember! Poor soul that records
The sufferings you underwent in illusion
Memory is the fire that snared
My poor heart.
* Literature in Tagalog

* Florante at Laura of Francisco Balagtas and Urbana at Felisa of Modesto de Castro became the inspiration of the Tagalog writers. * The advent of American period includes (1)Tagalog Drama (2)Tagalog Short Story (3)Tagalog Poetry

* Julian Cruz Balmaceda classified three kinds of Tagalog poets. They were: * Poet of the Heart (Makata ng Puso)
* Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay)
* Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan)

* Literature in English
* We can trace the beginnings of Philippine literature in English with the coming of the Americans thus, this period is divided into three time frames, namely: * The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910

* By 1900, English came to be used as a medium of instruction in the public schools. From the American forces were recruited the first teachers of English. * By 1908, the primary and intermediate grades were using English. It was also about this time when UP, the forerunner in the use of English in higher education, was founded. * Writers of this period were still adjusting to the newfound freedom after the paralyzing effect of repression of thought and speech under the Spanish regime. * The Period of Imitation: 1910-1925

* By 1919, the UP College Folio published the literary compositions of the first Filipino writers in English. They were the pioneers of in short story writing. * They were then groping their way into imitating American and British models which resulted in a stilted, artificial and unnatural style, lacking vitality and spontaneity. * Writers of this folio included Fernando Maramag, Juan F. Salazar, Jose M. Hernandez, Vicente del Fierro and Francisco Tonogbanua.

* The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941
* By this time, Filipino writers had acquired the...
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