The American Civil War

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HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD: 1750 – 1945
Course ID: HS1042

THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
1861 – 1865

Ante-Bellum, Bellum & Post-Bellum

April 13th, 2012

Course Instructor: Dr. Rajesh V.
Name: Kevin Fernandes
Roll No.: HS11H023
Course: 5 yr. Integrated M. A.

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Table of Contents
Part One: Ante-Bellum...................................................................................................................... 03. Part Two: Bellum............................................................................................................................... 11. Part Three: Post-Bellum.................................................................................................................... 18. Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................... 19. Image................................................................................................................................................... 02.

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Part One:

Ante-Bellum

The North and South had always had their disagreements, but they had put the aside and together formed a union, i.e. the United States of America. But what changed? Why did the South decide to split from the North? What brought upon the unimaginable horrors that nearly split America forever?

In the early 1800’s, America was growing in leaps and bounds. In the North, internal improvements and trade prospered. Investors invested millions into transportation systems in order to connect the regions together for the benefits of trade. The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825, made its investors into wealthy men. As food and produce flowed into New York from the West and manufactured goods flowed into the interiors, many more similar canals followed.

Peter Cooper’s Tom Thumb puffed out of Baltimore, Maryland in 1830, and by the 1860’s 48,000 km of railroads linked the nation together. Europe too grew closer as the shift from sail to steam engines cut the travel time from Liverpool to New York from a couple of months to a couple of weeks. Most people still worked on farms but the North was rapidly industrializing. Using new machines and inter-changeable parts, Northern factories poured out a variety of goods. Since this level of production was possible, the British called this system of mechanization as the “American System of Manufacturing”. Industry created jobs, immigrants from Ireland and Germany, and local farmers poured into Northern cities like Lowell (Massachusetts) and Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) to work as wagers in factories. Quickly Stores and Banks sprung up in order to sell goods and finance trade. A booming market economy was transforming the North.

Life was very different in the South however; there agriculture was the source of employment and wealth. On-going seasons and rich soil produced rice, tobacco and cotton; cash crops were grown for distant markets. The vast majority of Southerners

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were poor farmers while big plantation owners with many slaves dominated the South – Economically, Socially and Politically.
The North had outlawed slavery in the decades following the American Revolution. Back then, many Americans believed that slavery would die out on its own as it was no longer profitable. But, however in 1793, Eli Whitney from New England (Massachusetts), invented the Cotton Gin, this simple machine allowed a slave to process 50 pounds of cotton a day. This invention transformed cotton from a luxury item to the world’s cheapest fabric. Looming textile industries from the Northern states and England bought this processed cotton for a good price. Soon, the South became a major supplier of cotton to the world. In order to maintain its consistency in cotton production, a large and cheap labour force was needed and this was provided by the enslaved Africans. Doubling in value every 10 years, the cotton production soon...
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