Ⅰ.The definition of education
A. Ancient Greeks
The ancient Greeks, during the Golden Age of Athens, gave us great advances in art, literature, and philosophy. Philosophers such as Socrates(470-399 B.C.), Plato(427-347 B.C.), and Aristotle (384-322B.C.)were responsible for advanced thinking that has affected education up to the present time. Advanced thinking for these Greeks meant that they possessed wisdom far beyond what humans had expected before their time. According to Socrates education is to let people think logically; therefore, he used the dialectical method or logic discussion to cause people to think. His goal was to have a more ethical and moral society.
The Roman Empire spread throughout the known world, where it eventually extended a common religion and a common language with the aid of a common political bond. During the first century B.C. , Latin grammar schools developed , Emperor Vespasian (A.D.9-79) made the first efforts towards establishing higher education in Rome. By far the most outstanding educator in Roman times was Quintilian (A.D.35-95). He believed that the purpose of education was to uphold and protect society. He also believed that education could improve society .
C. The renaissance (14th -17th century)
A new revolution of thought began during the 14th century. instead of church dominance education turn to focus on humans and what they could do with art , literature, science, education, and other facets of life. That is to say , the bonds that held people to the church were broken in favor of more secular approaches to life. The renaissance gave the world back the freedom of individual though that has been lost before Europe had settled into Middle Ages.
D. The reformation (16th century)
The reformation grew out of a seed planted in the renaissance. It is true that education benefit a lot form reformation. A priest named Martin Luther (1483-1546) insisted that solely through our faith in God could we be saved,; therefore, education at that time was defined as learning to read and interpret the Bible for themselves.
E. The development of science and reason
At that time both Catholics and Protestants advocated a strict and narrow curriculum, mainly consisting if God’s Holy Word. However, Reformers such as Luther could not control all people’s minds; thus, the individual thinking of Luther had opened the door to questioning traditional ways of thinking. Sir Francis Bacon 91561-1626) was able to popularize the scientific method. From his point of view education should process the growth of scientific inquiry as a discipline. As a result, the causes of our most serious diseases, as well as answers to some of the most perplexing problems in our universe have been discovered or are undergoing analysis. Ⅱ.The aim of education
We find that the aim of education in modern China is full of Chinese characteristics. That may have something to do with our historical events, politics, and society. In 1957, Chairman Mao announced that our aim of education is to develop morally, intellectually and physically in order to become an educated laborer with socialism consciousness. What’s more, we also hear that the aim of education in China is to cultivate the builders and successors of socialism careers. The fundamental task of education in China is to train people. The aim of education we talk about here is the overall vision or regulations of quality specifications of the social individuals that the society makes and that are also the overall goal of our education. The socialistic education purposes should follow the theory of Marxism on the comprehensive development, which enables people to achieve a comprehensive and harmonious development in the moral, intellectual, sporting, and aesthetic. To train socialist builders and successors, these two aspects of our education goals close contact with each other, and they are unified, which is...