The Action of Tiger Conservation
As the population of tiger in the world dwindles nowadays, everyone has the responsibility for the conservation of tiger especially tiger range countries. Over the past 100 years, tiger numbers have declined by 95 percent which leave only 3,200 and three sub-species have become extinct – with a fourth not seen in the wild for over 25 years (World Wild Fund for Nature [WWF] International, 2008). Since it is estimated that wild tiger number halved to 3,200, we can stop this decline if we act together now. In the countries where tiger population is facing extinction, government, conservation groups, and corporation have stepped many efforts to recover the threat of extinction. Government plays a vital role in taking steps to conserve population of tiger because without them a tiger conservation policy cannot be implemented. All of the governments throughout the species' ratige demonstrate greater resolve and lasting commitments to conserve tigers and their habitats, as well as to stop all trade in tiger products from wild and captive-bred sources (Dinerstein et al., 2007). In Malaysia, the Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia which under Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Government of Malaysia has introduced the National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia in the year 2008. The aim of the Plan is to double the population of Malayan tigers from 500 to about 1,000 in the nation’s Central Forest Spine by 2020. This Plan identifies four objectives towards achieving following goal: 1. Secure the Central Forest Spine with strictly protected priority areas in landscapes connected with corridors. 2. Provide effective and long-term protection of tigers and their prey. 3. Promote and practice ecologically sound land-use, compatible with tiger conservation outside the priority areas. 4. Apply science in monitoring the efficacy of conservation actions and improving the knowledge of tiger ecology. (Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia [DWNP], 2008). Furthermore, the vigilance of the Anti-Smuggling Unit officers and the Department of Wildlife and National Parks’ Wildlife Crime Unit prevented the smugglers from slipping their illicit haul through the Malaysia-Thailand border and into the illegal trade in tigers and their parts. Besides that, the law is being amended and other more stringent regulations are being finalized which allow for higher fines and longer jail sentences for poaching tigers. This is because as it stands, taking a tiger or any part of a tiger is an offense under the Protection of Wild Life Act 1972 which allows for a maximum fine of RM15,000 (USD4,000), a jail term of up to five years, or both. This is paltry compared to the fortune awaiting the smuggler when his illegal haul is finally sold (John & Shepherd, 2009). According to the World Wild Fund for Nature (2008), India is home to the world’s largest population of tigers in the wild which is nearly to half of the world’s tigers or 1,400 of the 3,500 tigers. A major concerted conservation effort by the government known as Project Tiger. Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation movement initially spearheaded in India in 1972 by Indira Gandhi, the prime minister of the Republic of India from 1966 to 1977 to protect the Bengal Tigers. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted tiger reserves representative of various biogeographical regions throughout India. Under the flagship Project Tiger program, the central government allocated a budget of USD17.75 million to Indian tiger reserves during ninth five-year plan from 1997 to 2002 (Dinerstein et al., 2007). The fundamental accomplishment has been the establishment of over 25 well-monitored tiger reserves in reclaimed land where human development is categorically forbidden. The program has been credited with tripling the number of wild Bengal tigers from roughly 1,200 in 1973 to...
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