“Thank you for Arguing” Outline
A. “Art of Persuasion” (Preface)
B. Few colleges and universities still teach it
C. Romans using “the first infomercial tactic” – dirimens copulation : a joining that interrupts
1. “Not only do we have this, but we have….” (5)
D. To prove of its importance, Heinrich attempts a day without persuasion 1. “Free of advertising, politics, family squabbles, or any psychological manipulation whatsoever.” (6) Offense
I. Argument vs. Fight
A. “In a fight, each disputant tries to win.” (15)
B. “In an argument, they try to win over an audience – which can compromise the onlookers, television viewers, an electorate, or each other” (15) 1. In order to argue effectively, the arguer must first set a personal goal, and then play an active role in setting the goals of the “audience”.
C. Marcus Tulius Cierco came up with three goals for persuading people.
1. Stimulate your audience’s emotions
2. Change its opinions
3. Get it to act
II. Three basic issues with Rhetoric
A. Argument Tools: the three core issues
1. Blame – past
2. Values – present
3. Choice – future
B. Aristotelian terms
1. The rhetoric of the past being “forensic”
2. The rhetoric of the present being “demonstrative”
3. The rhetoric of the future being “deliberate”
III. Character, Logic, & Emotion
A. Logos – argument by logic
1. Relating to the brain of your audience.
B. Ethos – argument by character
1. Relating to the gut of your audience.
C. Pathos – argument by emotion
1. Relating to the heart of your audience.
IV. Decorum – Ethos
A. Decorum- when an agreeable ethos matches the audience’s expectation for a leader’s tone, appearance, and manners. B. Ethos in Greek means “habitat”
1. The environment animals and people live in.
V. Three essential qualities of a persuasive ethos
A. Rhetorical Virtue
1. “It can spring from a truly noble person or be faked by the skillful rhetorician. Rhetoric is an agnostic act; it requires more adaptation than righteousness” (65).
2. Values are adapted to those of the audience
3. Rhetoric value can be gained in 4 ways
b. Having others brag on your behalf
c. Revealing a tactical flaw
d. Switching sides when the powers that be do
B. Practical Wisdom
1. The audience thinks you know how to solve the problem at hand; Aristotle’s word for this is phronesis 2. “The practically was rhetorician seems to have right combination of book learning and practical experience, both knowledge and know-how.” (71)
3. Tools for enhancing your practical wisdom
a. Show off your experience
b. Bend the rules
c. Appear to take the middle course
1. The reluctant conclusion – Acting as if you’ve reached your conclusion only because of its overwhelming rightness. 2. The personal sacrifice – Claiming that the choice will help your audience more than it will help you. 3. Dubitatio – Showing doubt in your own rhetorical skill. VI. Pathos
A. Pathos also relates to feelings in a physical sense
B. Ways for a person to introduce emotion
1. Belief – To stir an emotion, using what your audience has experienced and what it expects to happen. 2. Storytelling – A well-told narrative gives the audience a virtual experience. 3. Volume control – Portraying an emotional by underplaying it. 4. Simple speech – Using basic language.
5. Anger – Directing an audience’s fury at someone by portraying his lack of concern over their problems. 6. Patriotism – Attaching a choice or action to the audience’s sense of group identity. 7. Emulation – Responding emotionally to a role model.
8. Unannounced emotion – Allows you to sneak up on your audience’s mood.
C. How to control the anger side of emotion
1. Passive voice – To direct an audience’s anger away from someone; imply that the action happened on its own. 2. Backfire –...
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