Textile Dyeing

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  • Topic: Dye, Dyes, Dyeing
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Dyeing & Printing
Classification of Dyes, Application of Dyes on Textile Materials, Introduction to Different types of Dyeing Machineries

Dyeing & Printing Title of Contents
1.0. 2.0. 3.0. Introduction to Textile Dyeing Classification of Dyes Dyeing Process 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 3.12. 4.0. Dyeing Methods Comparison of Dyeing in Various Stages Special Dyeing Effects Application of Dyes on Textile Materials Direct Dyes Azoic Colors Reactive Dyes Vat Dyes Acid Dyes Basic Dyes Sulphur Dyes Disperse Dyes 03 05 07 07 09 10 11 11 12 15 20 25 28 29 30 31


Introduction to Different Dyeing Machineries

Dyes, Theory of Dyeing, Classification of Dyes and its application

Dyeing & Printing
1.0. Introduction to Textile Dyeing


Dyeing is the process of imparting colours to a textile material in loose fibre, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye. Dyeing is also the process of coloring textile materials by immersing them in an aqueous solution of dye, called dye liquor. Normally the dye liquor consists of dye, water and an auxiliary. To improve the effectiveness of dyeing, heat is usually applied to the dye liquor. 1.1. Color – Definition Color or colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light energy versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates. Because perception of color stems from the varying sensitivity of different types of cone cells in the retina to different parts of the spectrum, colors may be defined and quantified by the degree to which they stimulate these cells. These physical or physiological quantifications of color, however, do not fully explain the psychophysical perception of color appearance. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics. It includes the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, and the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (that is, what we commonly refer to simply as light). 1.2. Definition – Dye By definition Dyes can be said to be coloured, ionizing and aromatic organic compounds which shows an affinity towards the substrate to which it is being applied. It is generally applied in a solution that is aqueous. Dyes may also require a mordant to better the fastness of the dye on the material on which it is applied. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin with no or very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale. 1.3. Definition – Pigment Pigment is the substance or powder that makes up the color of paint. Pigments are either organic (derived from plant or animal sources, e.g. ivory black, indigo) or inorganic (derived from salts or metallic oxides e.g. ocher, cobalt blue). Dyes, Theory of Dyeing, Classification of Dyes and its application

Dyeing & Printing


Pigment is a substance that can absorb light and reflect some lights to show color but it is water insoluble substances. Normally it is used for printing (with the presence of binder) or mass-coloration of the synthetic fibers. 1.4. Theory of Dyeing The general theory of dyeing explains the interaction between dye, fiber, water and dye auxiliary. More specifically, it explains: i. Force of repulsion which are developed between the dye molecules and water and ii. Force of attraction which are developed between the dye molecules and...
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