by Dr. Charles Tomasino
Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry & Science College of Textiles North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina
CHEMISTRY & TECHNOLOGY OF FABRIC PREPARATION & FINISHING
DR. CHARLES TOMASINO
DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING, CHEMISTRY A N D S C I E N C E COLLEGE OF TEXTILES N O R T H CAROLINA S T A T E UNIVERSITY
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Copyright © 1992 by Charles Tomasino N o p a r t o f this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form o r by a n y means, electronic o r mechanical, including photocopying, recording, o r by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author
Global competition has caused t h e US textile industry to modernize and become cost competitive because developing nations have discovered t h a t exporting textile products to the USA is an attractive way to enhance their economic growth. Their low labor costs have pressured domestic producers into replacing labor intensive manufacturing equipment with automated, sophisticated, efficient, hightechnology machinery. The industry has focused on reducing costs, improving quality and developing quick turnaround a n d response scenarios. These forces have impacted the number a n d quality of t h e technical work force. Graduates with a background in computers and information management are making up a larger portion of the entry-level technical staff. Process engineers dedicated to improving quality and efficiency make up the rest. Most of t h e entry level work force has little or no exposure t o textile education or training, they have to rely on experienced technologists to guide a n d train them. Unfortunately as t h e older technologists retire, they take with them valuable technical knowledge and know-how leaving the skeletal remains technically unsupported. Most of the technical information is in the form of supplier technical bulletins or in the files of one or two key old-time technologists. Very little is in written form, and what does exist, is not easily accessible to others needing t h e information. The new-hires a r e expected to perform their job assignment without the benefit of having trained under a technologist who understands the fundamentals of the process. There are many references dealing with the subject of textile wet processing. Some are text books describing particular aspects of bleaching a n d dyeing. There are also a few volumes describing chemical finishing. These books, while filled with valuable information, a r e old and limited to fibers, fabrics and processes important at the time they were written. Some up-to-date information can be found in specific, single topic papers or bound compilation of research and technical conferences papers. Other sources are specific technical support bulletins issued by chemical or fiber companies. The literature is devoid, however, of books t h a t survey t h e whole field in one volume and stress fundamentals rather than specific recipes and procedures. The idea for this book started with the need to provide students in textile chemistry written material to support courses in dyeing and finishing, in particular fabric preparation and fabric finishing. I was disappointed t h a t there was no single volume reference book which adequately covered the information I deemed important. I n the beginning, course material was a compilation of class notes gathered from a multitude of sources. It soon became clear t h a t a more complete, written monograph was needed to adequately convey the important chemistry and technology. There have also been numerous requests from industrial contacts for single volume reference material for people entering the field. 11
At the urging of my colleagues a n d industry peers, I have been persuaded to publish this collection of information so that anyone may have access to it...