Topics: Water, Cotton, Cellulose Pages: 106 (32340 words) Published: December 30, 2012

Effect of water quality on Reactive dyeing of cellulose Textiles


Textile Processing is an important sub-sector in the textile industry. It converts a virtually unbrandable raw product to a differentiable consumer product. In so doing, it provides a link between the design and fashion requirements of the market and the processes involved in converting grey fabrics into finished fabrics. Textile wet Processing uses a large number of workers as well as huge quantities of water, steam (fuel) chemicals and dyes and is a big drain on resource as compared with the other sub-sectors of the textile industry. 1.1.1 CAPACITY There are 601 Textile Processing units, of which 30 are integrated with Spinning Weaving & Finishing Mills and remaining are independent commission finishing units. Most of these are of small size in capacity. The main concentration is in Karachi, Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Lahore. Total cloth production (cotton & synthetics) is estimated at 4400 M. Sq. Meters. Approx 80% of cloth produced is processed. About 50% of the capacity is 15 years old and requires to be replaced. The capacity utilization is very low. 1.1.2 LOCATION The distribution of the Textile Processing units is in line with the location of the cloth production industry. Major concentration is in and around Karachi, Faisalabad, Lahore and Gujranwala. 1.1.3 EMPLOYMENT Textile Processing units generally employ only one or two dyeing and finishing technicians and perhaps one or two laboratory technicians. The bulk of the employment is unskilled or semi skilled labor used as machine operators, material handlers and supervisor. There is no reported data on employment. However, it is estimated that approx. 35000 persons are employed directly or indirectly. Since the qualified persons are in short supply therefore, the skill level is low and the wage level is also low. 1.1.4 QUALITY OF DYED/PRINTED FABRICS Textile Processing Industry is characterized by a large printing capacity and very small scales continuous dyeing capacity. This structure alone reflects that the fabric supply is good enough for printing purposes where the defects are covered by prints and despite the facts that quality level is not very good the printed fabric out put is accepted in markets since its application for bed wear and household items. In piece dyeing fabrics, there are disparities of dyeing between fabric’s lots and unevenness in dyeing so that the output is not appropriate for exports. In the local market the supply of dyed fabric is in short length where defect part is cut and quality requirements are not very high.

Effect of water quality on Reactive dyeing of cellulose Textiles


Only some units carry out quality inspections of processed items (color fastness against washing and light) and in most cases lengths are only carried out at the time of dispatch. There is hardly any attempt to collect data concerning processing defects, weaving defects, yarn defects etc. to serve as a feed back base. There is awareness to set up laboratories and apply quality control measures but the overall approach is production oriented. 1.1.5 PROBLEMS • • • • • • • The cost of machinery has gone very high. The rate of duty on the spare parts and other ancillary requirements is high. The cost of inputs (gas, water and power) has increased a lot. High import duty on dyes and chemicals has increased the cost of these important inputs rendering the industry to a cost disadvantage situation against our competitors India, China, Indonesia. Lab. equipment, which is very expensive and only 5% of the industry at present, has the facility of in house laboratories, which also need to be modernized. Textile Processing Industry has been subject to sales tax on capacity basis. Processing Industry requires qualified and skilled technicians.

Effect of water quality on Reactive dyeing of cellulose Textiles



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