Aim: To prove the arrangements of the metals (Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu) according to the reactivity series. Background Information: By using various experiment, the reactivity of the metals can be deduced by the observation of the reaction. Hypothesis: Metals with low ionisation energy will lose their their electron more easily providing a more vicious and obvious result, as compared to the metals with higher ionisation energy, as the metals with lower ionisation energy loses electrons more easily. The result of this experiment should be similar to the published reactivity series. Materials :
* Hydrochloric acid (1M)
* Metals (sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, tin, lead, copper) * 9 test tubes
* Test tube rack
* Test tube holder
* Retort stand
* Bunsen burner
* Heat proof board
* Wire mesh
Acid and Metal
* Using a carving knife/cutter, cut out a piece of metal weighing 1g. * In each test tube, pour in 2ml of Hydrochloric acid per test tube. * Add 1g of calcium in to the test tube and take down the time it takes for the metal to completely disintegrate. (each metal is tested for 10 minutes) * Repeat the process above with other metals.
* Record the result obtained from the observation
Water(steam) and metal
* carve out 1 gram of the identical surface area from the metals. * Fill up a beaker with water, and heat the beaker on a Bunsen flame until it boils. * Water should be constantly boiling during this experiment. * Once water boils, hold the metals above the steam.
* Record the time needed for the metal to react to the steam. * Collect hydrogen gas for each experiment to carry out the hydrogen test to confirm the metal’s reactivity rate. * Record the results obtained from observation.
Oxygen and metal
* Carve out 1gram of the identical surface area from the metals. *...