Testing for Macromolecules

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Title : Testing for Macromolecules

Abstract : To test for macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins), iodine solution, alcohol, aceto-orcein stain and copper sulfate solution are used. The conclusions for all of the tests are positive.


A)Carbohydrate (starch)
Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. They consist of monosaccharide sugars of varying chain lengths. Certain carbohydrates are an important storage and transport form of energy in most organisms, including plants and animals. Carbohydrates are classified by their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose).

Lipids are one class of aliphatic hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds essential for the structure and function of living cells. Lipids are characterized by being water-insoluble but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Examples of lipids are fats and oils. Fats and oils are made from two kinds of molecules: glycerol (a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three carbons) and three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis.

C)Nucleic acids
A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. Nucleic acids consist of nitrogenous compounds called purines or pyrimidines, a sugar and phosphate.

Protein is a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins are fundamental components of all...
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