I chose to omit this question because I couldn’t remember with which “ism” John Wesley was associated.
The correct answer is c. Methodism because in the “Impact of the Enlightenment” PowerPoint, a parenthetical mentions John Wesley in the description of Methodism.
6.Romanticism changed the direction of the Enlightenment by emphasizing…
I answered a. skepticism which is incorrect because skepticism was more of a defining characteristic for movements like the Scientific Revolution.
The correct answer is c. emotion because Romanticism was a focus on the individual and nature which were ofter very emotional ordeals.
8.The Encyclopedia contributed to Enlightenment goals of social reform by…
I answered c. providing systematic plans for social reform that could be used by anyone who was able to read which is incorrect because the Encyclopedia itself was not about social reform, and even if someone could read, he or she wouldn’t necessarily be able to understand the Encyclopedia.
The correct answer is a. promoting the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problems because the Encyclopedia’s direct influence was its spread of knowledge, which, in turn, was used to make informed decisions.
13.“In every government, there are three sorts of power…when the legislative and executive are united in the same person or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty because…the same monarch or senate…(may) enact tyrannical laws.” The author of this passage was:
I answered e. Rousseau which is incorrect because although Rousseau favored republicanism as stated in his The Social Contract, he never really made the distinction between the three branches of government.
The correct answer is a. Montesquieu because he made the distinction of dividing the “administrative” powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
14.Voltaire’s statement “Ecrasez l’infame” (crush the infamous thing) refers to…
I answered a. the government of Louis XIV which is incorrect because Louis XIV died in 1715 when Voltaire was only 18 years old and hadn’t begun his writing career.
The correct answer is b. bigotry and intolerance because he thought that the royalty and the clergy bred “superstition and intolerance” within the people.
18.In his campaign for greater toleration, French Huguenot refugee Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) published his Historical and Critical Dictionary, which…
I answered d. was an attempt to offer clear definitions of commonly used religious terminology that Bayle felt was too often misunderstood, a contributing factor to religious intolerance which is incorrect because Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary wasn’t a literal dictionary in which terms were defined.
The correct answer is c. listed the errors and delusions of an entire host of writers on religion in an effort to show that religions must be held accountable to reason because the word “dictionary” simply refers to the writers on religion, and rather that blaming religious terminology for religious intolerance, he wanted to express that religions should be held accountable to reason.
19.What is a major way that the Enlightenment in France differed from that in Germany?
I answered a. The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest which is incorrect because this answer has the trigger word “wholeheartedly,” and philosophes faced censorship throughout Europe.
The correct answer is c. French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars because France has a history of breaking from the church freely such as with the Papal Schism, while Germany, being consumed by the Holy Roman Empire was tied closer with the church.