Sovereignity- supreme & independent power or authority in government as possessed or claimed by a state or community. Being sovereign nations can be more indifferent to the interests of others. As long as nations exist, international economics will always need a separate body of analysis distinct from the rest of economies.
Globalization- worldwide integration & development; extending to other or all parts of the world
* Low interest rates due to a high degree of price stability * More price transparency
* Removal of transaction costs
* No exchange rate fluctuations
* Lack of strong Federal government
* Two speed economies
* To raise or lower interest rates
* Abolished independent monetary policies
(being able to slash interest rates & devaluing a currency) Different moneys- the existence of separate national currencies means the price ratio between them can change Different fiscal policies- in the international area tax differences can set off massive flows of funds and goods that would not have existed without the tax discrepancies
Factor mobility- the importance of this intranatural mobility of the factors of production was that returns to factors tended to equality within countries but not between countries. The degree to which a factor of production, such as labor or capital, is able to move, either among industries or among countries, in response to differences in its factor price, thus tending to eliminate such differences. Mobility & accessibility at a cost there is a price involved
Land- people usually migrate within their own country more readily than they will emigrate abroad. Identity of languages, customs, and traditions within countries exist rather than between countries.
Labor-Personal impediments include physical location, and physical and mental ability. The systemic impediments include educational opportunities as well as various laws and political contrivances and even barriers and hurdles arising from historical happenstance. Increasing and maintaining a high level of labor mobility allows a more efficient allocation of resources. Labor mobility has proven to be a forceful driver of innovations.
Rules of Government- economic stability, maintain order, opportunity, equality, education, resources, competitive markets, stimulus
Economies of scale- productivity = a measure of output/ input
Trade- to exchange an abundance of a deficit trade in order to create a new market
Price elasticity—inelastic 1% change in price < 1% change in quantity
Elastic 1% change in price > 1% change in quantity Marginal cost= total costs - total cost for one additional product. As one industry expands at the expense of others, increasing amounts of the other goods must be given up to get each extra unity of the expanding output
Total cost= total fixed costs + total variable costs
Fixed costs- costs that do not change with output ex: plant & equipment
Variable costs- costs that do change with output
AFC= total fixed costs / output
Downward slope because youre spreading the cost over what you produce always producing more
AVC= TVC / Output
MC curve intersects AVC & AFV at their lowest points
Utility- a consumer’s problem is to get as much happiness or well-being by spending the limited income that the consumer has available. Determinantes of how much a consumer buys: Consumer’s income
opinion of product
Measure responsiveness by the slope of the demand curve, steep slope indicates low responsiveness. Elasticity- the percent change in one variable resulting from a 1% change in another variable.
Price elasticity of demand- is the percent change in quantity demanded resulting from a 1% increase in price
Net gain- is the difference between the value that consumers place on the product and the payment that they must make to buy the...
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