PART IV Managing the Risks of Multinational Operations
Chapter 9 The Rationale for Hedging Currency Risk
In a perfect financial market, financial contracts are zero-NPV investments.
If hedging currency risk is to add value to the stakeholders of the firm, then hedging must impact either expected future cash flows or the cost of capital or both.
If financial markets are informationally efficient, then corporate financial policy is irrelevant.
ANS: False. Don’t confuse informational efficiency with a perfect market. Although the perfect market conditions ensure informational efficiency, informationally efficient markets can be imperfect.
Perfect financial markets are a necessary condition for corporate risk hedging to have value.
ANS: False. Market imperfections are necessary conditions.
In perfect financial markets, corporate financial policy is irrelevant.
In a perfect financial market, the law of one price holds.
Equal access to perfect financial markets ensures that individual investors can replicate any financial action that the firm can take.
In perfect financial markets, corporate hedging policy has no value.
In perfect financial markets, corporate investment policy is irrelevant.
ANS: False. Firm value depends entirely on the firm’s investments in a perfect financial market.
If corporate financial policy is to have value, then at least one of the perfect market assumptions cannot hold.
Real-world financial markets are perfect markets.
ANS: False. Perfect markets are a theoretical ideal and not a practical reality.
Market imperfections are greater across national boundaries than within national boundaries.
In perfect financial markets, multinational corporations have an advantage over domestic firms in financing their investments.
ANS: False. The law of one price holds in perfect financial markets.
Multinationals have a comparative advantage over domestic firms in exploiting cross-border differences in financial markets.
Progressive taxation is a system in which larger taxable incomes receive a higher tax rate.
Tax preference items are goods that are sold on a tax-free basis.
ANS: False. Tax preference items are items such as tax loss carryforwards and carrybacks and investment tax credits that are used to shield corporate taxable income from taxes.
A call option is an option to buy an underlying asset at a predetermined price.
A call option is an option to “call in” or demand payment on a loan.
ANS: False. A call option is an option to buy an underlying asset at a predetermined price.
Indirect financial distress costs are relatively unimportant for firms selling products for which quality and after-sale service are important.
ANS: False. Reputation is easily eroded in these instances.
Managerial gamesmanship is least prevalent during financial distress.
ANS: False. Gamesmanship is more prevalent during hard times.
Option values increase with an increase in the volatility of the underlying asset.
A decrease in the variability of firm value is good news for debt and bad news for the equity call option, other things held constant.
Corporate hedging of business risk unambiguously increases shareholder wealth when the firm is in financial distress.
ANS: False. Because debtholders have first claim on corporate assets, corporate hedging of business risk helps debtholders first and may or may not help equityholders.
In the real world, corporate hedging policy can change expected future cash flows but is unlikely to reduce the cost of debt.
ANS: False. Hedging policy can decrease the...
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