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1) The functional unit of the kidney is the
a- Calyx
b- Nephron
c- Collecting duct
d- Pyramid

2) All of the following are components of the nephron except the: a- Loop of Henle
b- Renal corpuscle
c- Proximal tubule
d- Renal pelvis

3) Plasma proteins are not commonly found in the urine because: a- All proteins are subsequently reabsorbed
b- All of the plasma proteins are too large to fit through the filtration slits c- All proteins filtered are subsequently degraded before elimination d- The negative charge of the glomerular filtration membrane repels the plasma proteins

4) Just before entering the ureter, urine passes through the: a- Collecting duct
b- Renal pelvis
c- Urethra
d- Major calyx

5) The filtration of the plasma per unit of time is known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is directly related to the: a- Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries
b- Oncotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries
c- Vascular resistance in the glomerular arterioles
d- Hydrostatic pressure in the Bowman capsule

6) The descending segment of the loop of henle primarily allows for: a- Sodium secretion
b- Potassium secretion
c- Hydrogen ion secretion
d- Water absorption

7) Which of these hormones synthesized and secreted by the kidneys stimulates bone marrow production of red blood cells? a- Creatine
b- Aldosterone
c- Erythropoietin
d- Renin

8) The best clinical measure of renal function is:
a- Glomerular filtration rate
b- Circulating ADH levels
c- Volume of urine output
d- Urine- specific gravity

9) Glomerular filtration rate and plasma creatine concentration are ______ related. a- Directly
b- Indirectly
c- Inversely
d- Not

10) A 25 yr old male has a severe kidney obstruction leading to removal o f the affected kidney, which of the following would be expected to occur? a- Atrophy of the remaining kidney
b- Compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney
c- Dysplasia in the remaining kidney
d- Renal failure

11) A 24 yr old female is diagnosed with renal calculus that is causing obstruction. Which of the following symptoms would she most likely experience? a- Anuria
b- Hematuria
c- Pyuria
d- Flank pain

12) A 25 yr old female present with burning urination. She was diagnosed with UTI. Which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract? a- Streptococcus
b- Candida albicans
c- Chlamydia
d- E coli

13) Mechanisms for defense against urinary pathogens in women include: a- The long length of the urethra
b- Alkaline Ph of urine
c- Secretion of mucus that traps bacteria
d- Antimicrobial secretions from the prostate

14) 28 yr female presents with fever,, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. Her infection is located in the: a- Bladder
b- Renal pelvis
c- Renal tubules
d- Glomerulus

15) 15 yr old male was diagnosed with pharyngitis. 8 days later he developed acute glomerulonephritis. Which most likely cause of the disease? a- Klebsiella
b- HIV
c- Genital herpes virus
d- Group A B- hemolytic streptococcus

16) 25 yr male was diagnosed with good pasture syndrome. Which of the following mechanism would cause tissue injury? a- Viral infection of the bowman capsule
b- Production of the antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane c- Antigen- antibodies complex deposition with complement activation d- Abnormal activation of clotting factors and microclotting in the glomerular

17) 52 yr female is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. Which is the common symptom of this disease? a- Hematuria
b- Dysuria
c- Oliguria
d- Proteinuria

18) 42 yr male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood. He is in acute...
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