Terrorism and its Effects on International Relations
Over the years there have been significant changes in how terrorism is carried out. With the changes in how terrorism is carried out there have also been dramatic changes in how countries counter terrorist attacks. The modifications in the way a country counters these terrorist attacks affects international relations of these countries. These issues bring about the question of how have counter terrorism methods affected international relations. To answer this question several things must be addressed which are, methodology, history of terrorism, and a literature review of multiple authors that have discussed this subject.
To evaluate the question, how have counter terrorism methods affected international relations, several variables must be addressed. These variables include; demands made by the terrorist group, the demands made after the attack by the country affected, the country’s enforcement of these demands, and casualties of the attacks. These variables will change the outcome what counter terrorism method will be used and this will in turn affect international relations. For this question three cases will be looked at to show how these variables affect the outcome of this question.
Some words must first be defined to understand the question fully: 1. Terrorism: the use of violence against primarily civilian targets with an intention to cause fear and achieve political goals. 2. Counter: to respond in opposition to another force.
3. International relations: Foreign affairs; relations among countries. (Answers.com 2008)
This question will be examined using case studies. Case studies are the best option in this situation because it gives direct examples of how counter terrorism methods have affected international relations. Case Studies give an in depth look into the situations where the statistical approach would not. However, it does not give a broad view of all situations in which counter terrorism methods have occurred, so it does not include all possible outcomes.
Three cases will be examined. All of these cases involve a terrorist attack and the counter methods used after the attack by the country. By looking at these cases we will see how the decision to use counter terrorism methods have changed the international relations between countries. The first case to be discussed will be the assassination of Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. The second case to be discussed will be the Black September attack on the 1972 Olympics. The third case to be discussed will be the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. These cases expand over a period of time showing how counter terrorism methods have affected international relations over the years. The first and last cases show extreme instances because they both lead to war. The responses differed in each situation. Each country has a different way of dealing with terrorist attacks and with each country’s response comes reactions from others.
The assassination of Franz Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria-Hungary and his wife on June 28, 1914, is the first of the three case studies. The assassination was carried out by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand. The objective of this attack was to stop movement towards independence. This attack caused widespread shock around the world. Austria Hungary saw this assassination as a chance to settle Serbian threat which had darkened European politics for years. A list of demands was sent to Serbia, known as the July Ultimatum, just three weeks after the assassination. This ultimatum held Serbia responsible for the planning and killing of the Archduke and consisted of various demands which Serbia must follow. In response to this, Serbia mobilized its military as a refusal to comply with all of Austria-Hungary’s demands. Austria-Hungary, Russia, and France had replied by mobilizing their armies as...
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