Terrorism

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What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism?

Definition of Terrorism
Terrorism actually comes from the Latin Word “Fear” x “The Unlawful Use of Force Against Persons or Property to Intimidate or Coerce a Government, the Civilian Population, or Segment Thereof, in the Furtherance of Political or Social Objectives.”(Source FBI) x

FALLOUT SHELTER

Terrorism


Is an unlawful act of violence Intimidates governments or societies Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives





Arthur H. Garrison

“…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities; terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point” NYTimes, 1/6/2000

“Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen”

Terrorism Priorities

Today
Biological Conventional Weapons Dirty Bombs

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Property of Terrorism






Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter

The Terrorist and their Thinking

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Fear always springs from ignorance.
Emerson, 1837

Modern History of Terrorism  Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare. 



Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997). The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998).

Arthur H. Garrison

Terrorism conclusions
  







Terrorism is an ancient tactic. Terrorism is a mode of communication. Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare. Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war. Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear. Terrorism is a political act. Arthur H. Garrison

Two Types of Groups
x

Domestic/ National International

x

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Terrorist Motives
x x x x

Ethnic Cleansing Damage Infrastructure Disrupt Normal Life Direct Kill of an Enemy

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Terrorist Motives
x

Undermine Confidence In Government - Requires Media Coverage - Should effect as many people as possible - Must last long enough to overwhelm (NYC) Local resources Media audience - Usually directed towards injury fatality (International Terrorist)

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Target Selection
Based on:
x
x x

Motive
Type of Device Available Type of Deployment Method Available

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Thinking Outside the Box

They ARE!!

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Types of Terrorist Incidents
Four Primary Types for Emergency Services

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Terrorist Incidents
Explosives and Arson x Nuclear Materials x Biological Agents x Chemical Agents x

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Explosives and Arson
70% of Attacks Worldwide x Maximizes Property Damage x Target Individuals (Letter or Package Bombs) x Destroy Building, Aircraft, Monuments, etc.. x Large Devices, Truck or Car Bombs x
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Suspicious Thing to Look for

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Operational Procedures for Terrorist Incidents
FACTORS FOR PREPARING
Common Weapons Stand-off Weapons Super Terrorism
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Operational Changes
Emergency Services strategic thinker must be willing to “think the unthinkable” so that appropriate responses may be conceived. x Do not overstate the threat. x

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Training
• Recruitment • Instructors • Sites • Equipment

Terrorist Units and Cells: A Functional Approach

Funding
• Sources: crime, harvesting • Processing and management, •Nation States

Logistics
• Equipment & supplies • Other essentials • Sources

Operations
• One-man • Team • Multilateral/ collaborative

Intelligence
• Supplied • Gathered • Internet/other open source • Information and politics

2

Training
• Recruitment • Instructors • Sites • Equipment

Government Response to Terrorism: A Functional Approach...
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