Terms for Chapter 2
Sea Dogs-roving English ships that plundered Spanish treasure ships (1560s) St. Augustine–fort Spain created in Florida 1565 to protect the route of its treasure fleet against English ships, French settlers, hostile Indians (1st permanent Euro. settlement in US) Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries-new policy Spanish leaders introduced after military setbacks to pacify Indians by Christianizing missionaries not conquistadores (1573) Ecomenderos-privelaged spanish landowners in NM, who were allowed by the Franciscans to utilize the goods and forced labor of Indians and their land Popé-an Indian shaman, who killed and drove away Spaniards (destroying Spanish churches etc) with his followers in 1680 Samuel de Champlain-founder of the fur-trading post Quebec (1608), first permanent French colony). Colony did badly until 1662 when it was turned to royal colony Robert de La Salle-fur trader who in 1681 traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico to found Louisiana (and ultimately New Orleans). Traveled so far from Great Lakes/New France region to get rive by taking advantage of of remote Indians who did not know value of their furs Henry Hudson-An English mariner sent by Dutch merchants in 1609 to find a navigable route to East Indies/riches. Explored rivers of the NE (esp. Hudson River) and found plentiful furs Fort Orange-Dutch merchants founded this fur-trading post (now Albany) in 1614 after following H. Hudson's exploration to trade for furs with the Iroquois West India Company-chartered by Dutch government in 1621 and set up New Netherland colony and New Amsterdam (Manhattan) as capital, brining in farmers/artisans to make sustainable. Later acted independently, ignoring New Netherland to profit in other colonies Governor Peter Stuyvesant-governor of New Amsterdam who ruled in authoritarian way by alienating colony's diverse residents and ignoring representation demands. Anglo-Dutch War-series of wars fought between the Dutch and the English in the 1600s and 1700s over control of the seas and trade routes. Early wars confirmed the Dutch Republic's position as the leading maritime country and its domination of world trade until the early 1700s. Virginia Company-London company of investors granted all land by King James I of England from NC to NY (1606). Directors named land Virginia and in 1607 group of male traders (no farming experience) settled area of Jamestown with intention of obtaining gold (there was no gold). More than half of first settlers died from voyage, disease, famine. Later encouraged migration by granting free settlers land. Powhatan-chief of local tribes who treated the English traders as potential (trade) allies, and essentially saved them from total famine when he gave them corn (in exchange got metal tools/guns). Saved life of Captain John Smith from his brother Opechancanough. John Rolfe-an English colonist that married Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas under his arrangement (diplomatic effort by Powhatan). Rolfe imported tobacco seed from West Indies, producing a profitable and in-demand crop in Europe––spurred migration of thousands of English settlers establishing plantations, and consequently invading Indian land. House of Burgesses-system of representative government in VA issued as a charter from the Virginia Company (1619). Could make laws and levy taxes, but governor/company council in England could veto its acts. Opechancanough-Powhatan's brother and successor who attacked the early English invaders (captured Capt. John Smith). Stayed distant from English and refused all treaties while Powhatan chief. Became chief 1621, wanted to wipe out all of Englishmen (land-hungry and conversion minded). Started Indian War of 1622 when killed 1/3 of white English in surprise attack, who then brutally punished Indians and declared perpetual war that lasted 10 years. Privy Council-a committee of political advisers to King James I, who made it a requirement that all...
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