Enclosure Acts: The Revolution of 1688 confirmed the ascendancy of the Parliament in England over the king. Economically, it meant the ascendancy of the more well to do property-owning classes. The British government was substantially in the hands of wealthy landowners, the “squirearchy”. Many landowners, seeking to increase their money incomes, began experimenting new and improved methods of cultivation and stock raising. An improving landlord, to introduce such changes successfully needed full control of his land. However this was not possible because of the old village system of open fields, common lands, and semi collective methods of cultivation. The old common tights of the villagers were part of the English common law. Only an act of Parliament could modify or extinguish them. It was the great landowners who controlled Parliament, which therefore passed hundreds of “enclosure acts”, authorizing the enclosure, by fences, walls, or hedges, of the old common lands and unfenced open fields. Smalls owners were excluded. The wealthy landlords owned most of the land in England. • Greatly raise the productivity of land and of farm labor • Fatter cattle
• The English country people became farmers
• Working men and women were dependent on daily wages
Factory Act of 1802: A cotton lord, or cotton magnate Robert Peel in 1802 pushed for the first Factory Act through Parliament. This act purported to regulate the conditions in which pauper children were employed in the textile mills, but it was a dead letter from the beginning, since it proved no adequate body of factory inspectors. The English at this time unlike the other countries in Europe had no class of trained, paid, and professional government administrators, preferring self-government and local initiative. The Factory Act was supposed to reduce the amount of working hours for women and children.
Thomas Malthus: The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus was a British scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent. Malthus has become widely known for his theories concerning population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors. He'd argued that the population would always exceed the food supply. The six editions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population, published from 1798 to 1826, observed that sooner or later population gets checked by famine, disease, and widespread mortality. He believed that the hope of warding off these "positive checks" was "prudent restraint." That is, young men and women had to limit the growth of population by the old tried-and-true means of marrying late in life. Malthus didn't have much faith in this, however. Thanks to all of these morbid predictions, economics were soon dubbed "the dismal science."
The Iron law of wages:
1. Increase of wages
2. Increase in children
3. Increase in costs
4. Increase in poverty
|Social |Rights and Liberties of the individual | | |Well ordered society | | |Freedom of press | | |Not really in favor of universal male suffrage because liberals feared the excess of mob rule or | | |irrational political action | |Political |Opposition to Royalism | | |Self government | | |Law abiding...