Term Paper for International Management

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1) Costa Rica:
The culture in terms of Individualism/Collectivism shows that they are really oriented to a more collectivism side because they work in teams and the interests of the whole group prevail over individual ones. That’s why they consider that a relationship with someone prevails over task. The behavior of Costa Rica culture it’s regulated by shame or loss of face, so that’s why they also have a high context communication. The culture in terms of Power Distance shows that they are in between both high and low, because it depends on the situation and environment. It’s high when it’s more formal and people fear to express disagreement with superiors. There are wide salary ranges and power is based on family, friends, and force. There is unilateral obedience and respect. In non-formal situations there is a low power distance so people have a more consultative relationship with superiors. There is a large middle class and there is higher worker interdependence. The culture in terms of Uncertainty Avoidance shows the people are not risk takers; they are high uncertainty avoidance because they avoid ambiguity, and they avoid multiple bosses. For them time is money and they work hard. In terms of Time Orientation they consider their culture as a Long-term orientation because they think a lot in the future, on what it is going to happen. That’s why they don’t like to risk a lot. They have perseverance toward slow results. They are always late, “tico-time”. In terms of Masculinity/Femininity it shows that they are in the femininity side because they recognize good jobs, they seek personal accomplishments, and they live to work. They have small government budget to poor countries. 2) Manager going to Costa Rica.

2a) In rewarding employees it’s important to consider equality because by using that method you are rewarding the employee and the whole group to get a more or less equal share of the rewards, which functions to keep conflict at a minimum and team work is also rewarded, as in a collectivistic culture.

2b) I will use a directive leadership style because as I mentioned before Costa Rica has a high/low power distance culture so I will definitely use directive leadership method, which is that the leader gives specific guidance of performance to subordinates, because it’s a way of imposing them to work in the formal in a formal situation or environment. Even though this culture also has sometimes a low power distance on certain situations, I will still use that one because mostly big companies use it and multinationals that had success there. It’s a way of imposing respect and effectiveness avoiding conflicts.

2c) Three issues a manager should pay closed attention to in order to make performance feedback effective are: Culture, Language, Critics. He must definitely understand the culture of their employees because he must understand how they work and how they should be evaluated. Sometimes a manager doesn’t understand that certain culture works in a certain way, so they can evaluate them wrongly. Language is also something important because they can have problems in terms of communication and how him or the manager will express correctly what they are thinking and feeling. He or the employee maybe can misunderstand the whole point of the argument or something like that. Critics must be done in a thoughtful way because a manager can say what they don’t like from the employee, but maybe the employee will fill attack and react to it, or sometimes will not understand that they are criticizing him, so he won’t change. 3) Basically my experience on Alpha-Beta negotiation was really good because I personally experience some of the conflicts and issues on a real negotiation between two different parties. My role was to try to negotiate some of the terms that my company business was trying to sign, but my role specifically was to make them change some of the numbers in the negotiation. My requirements for my role was...
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