Term Paper About Adrenaline

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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

“ 'These changes in the body,' Walter Bradford Cannon wrote in the review paper he sent to the American Journal of Physiology late in 1913, 'are, each one of them, directly serviceable in making the organism more efficient in the struggle which fear or rage or pain may involve; for fear and rage are organic preparations for action, and pain is the most powerful known stimulus to supreme exertion. The organism which with the aid of increased adrenal secretion can best muster its energies, can best call forth sugar to supply the labouring muscles, can best lessen fatigue, and can best send blood to the parts essential in the run or the fight for life, is most likely to survive. Such, according to the view here propounded, is the function of the adrenal medulla at times of great emergency.' ”

Epinephrine, more commonly known as Adrenaline, is a naturally occurring hormone. It is a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism. This reaction, known as the “Flight or Fight Response” prepares the body for strenuous activity. Epinephrine was the first hormone to be discovered. Hormones are substances produced by body cells that circulate in body fluid and influence the activity of cells in another part of the body. In the 1950s, the American pharmacologist Earl Sutherland (1915-1974) discovered that epinephrine does not act directly on cells, but stimulates production of cyclic AMP, a second messenger that regulates cell activity. The term “Epinephrine” was chosen as the generic name in the United States because John Abel, who prepared extracts from the adrenal glands in 1897, used that name for his extracts. In 1901, Jokichi Takamine patented a purified adrenal extract, and called it "Adrenaline", which was trademarked by Parke, Davis & Co in the U.S. In the belief that Abel's extract was the same as Takamine's, a belief since disputed, “Epinephrine” became the generic name in the U.S. The British Approved Name and European Pharmacopoeia term for this chemical is “Adrenaline” and is indeed now one of the few differences between the INN and BAN systems of names. Among American health professionals and scientists, the term “Epinephrine” is used over “Adrenaline”. However, pharmaceuticals that mimic the effects of epinephrine are often called adrenergics, and receptors for epinephrine are called adrenergic receptors or adrenoceptors. In medicine, Epinephrine is used chiefly as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, and as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma. Epinephrine is found in small amounts in the body and is essential for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis because of its ability to divert blood to tissues under stress. In chemicals, Epinephrine is one of a group of monoamines called the catecholamines. It is produced in some neurons of the central nervous system, and in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study defines Epinephrine/Adrenaline.
Specifically, it answers the following questions:
a.) How does Epinephrine/Adrenaline work in the body?
b.) What is the role of Epinephrine/Adrenaline in the body?
c.) What are the medical uses of Epinephrine/Adrenaline?
d.) What are the effects of Epinephrine/Adrenaline to the body?

IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will give you knowledge that is clearer and understanding that is better about Epinephrine/Adrenaline, how does it work, what are its roles and effects in the body and its medical uses.

For the researcher, it will be beneficial for she will be able to know and gather knowledge about Epinephrine/Adrenaline. It will also serve as a basis to understand different reactions of the human body and...
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