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CORRUPTION OF THE PHILIPPINES

A Term Paper
Presented to
Septeriano B. Senoc, Jr
Surigao State College of Technology

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Course Requirements
In ENG.102
Communication Arts 2

by
Elmer E. Bayhon
5 March 2013

Thesis: Corruption has been defined as the misuse
or abuse of public office for private gain (World Bank, 1997; Jayawickrama, 1998; UNDP, 1999). It involves members of government and the private sector. It comes in several forms or as Klitgaard2 puts it, “a wide array of illicit behaviors including bribery, extortion, fraud, nepotism, graft, speed money, pilferage, theft, embezzlement, falsification of records, kickbacks, influence-peddling, and campaign contributions.” I. Introduction

A. Back ground Information
B. People attitude’s on the problem
C. Scope of the problem

II. The body
A. Corrupt in the country
1. Approximate number of corrupt people in the country
2. Profile of corrupt people
B. Effects of corruption in the country
1. On the country
2. On his family
3. In his workplace
4. On himself

III. Conclusion
A. Impending results if problem on corruption remain unsolved B. Encouragement to participate in an all-out war against corruption

CORRUPTION OF THE PHILIPPNES

In the Philippines, there is a strong belief that corruption is prevalent. In a 1998 Social Weather Station (SWS) survey, over70% of the respondents think that, in government, corruption exists. Nearly 40% believe that there is “a great deal” of corruption. Even the Office of the Ombudsman admits that billions of pesos are being lost to corruption. Based on its Corruption Perceptions Index(CPI) for 99 countries, Transparency International has also rated the Philippines as the 54th most corrupt countries in 1999. The Philippines has scored 3.6 based on the CPI’s scale of 1 (high perception) to 10 (negligible perception)3According to Vinay Bhargava (2000), World Bank country director for the Philippines, “Our analysis so far reveals a broad consensus that corruption in the public and private sectors in the Philippines is pervasive and deep-rooted, touching even the judiciary and the media.”4Indeed, in a society with a long history of state and elite predation as well as mass powerlessness, the use of public office has been identified with gaining and maintaining economic, political, and social power. Both private citizens and government employees habitually use this office to further their self-interest at the expense of the common good. This custom has prevailed the Philippines under a long and continuing regime of rent capitalism (Hutchcroft, 1998). This is in contrast to the production-oriented capitalism following Max Weber’s classification of capitalism

Many Filipinos today would think that corruption was negligible during the American colonial era. However, as suggested in Medina’s report, corruption in the provinces was not altogether eradicated. According to McCoy (1994), the Americans even “used the term cacique to describe the provincial elites who combined local office with landed wealth to gain extraordinary control over the countryside.” Nevertheless, he added, “Similarly, the colonial executive tried to use insular auditors to restrain rent seeking by an emerging national elite. Although it was effectively penetrated and manipulated by these elites from the outset of American rule, the colonial bureaucracy managed to maintain its influence until the Commonwealth period of the 1930s” (McCoy, 1994:12). Although American colonial rule tried its best at eradicating, there were incidents that already indicated prevalence. Hutchcroft (1998: 67-68), for example, cites the solvency problems faced by the Philippine National Bank (PNB) less than five years after its establishment in 1917. Loans were given out without consultation and went to well connected agricultural families, directors, or interests controlled by directors. In...
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