LITHUANIAN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES
FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH PHILOLOGY
STYLISTIC FEATURES OF HUMOROUS DISCOURSE IN
“THE FOURTH HAND'' BY JOHN IRVING
Course Paper in BA English Philology Programme
(signature) Prof./ Assoc. Prof. / Lect. / Dr. Linas Selmistraitis /_ /_ /- /_ /_ / - /_ /_ /_ /_ / (date of paper evaluation)
(signature) 4th year student Jolita Vičkačkienė /_ /_ /- /_ /_ / - /_ /_ /_ /_ / (date of paper submission) E-mail address:
Sarcasm, verbal irony, paradox, and pun are devices sometimes used to show humor. Heck, a simile or metaphor can also establish humor. One of my favorite funny lines from a book is a simile. Somewhere in the "Hitchhiker's Guide" series, Douglas Adams described a woman failing to fly by saying "She hung in the air exactly as bricks don't." Funny stuff, and a simile.
On a more simple level, one's diction (word choice) can be used to create humor. Diction isn't a device--it's just part of writing that is crucial in establishing tone, which is why it can relate to humor.
Satire and parody, both of which are genres more than they are devices, are often humorous as well. Some satires are more bitter than they are funny, but parodies are nearly always funny, and satires often are, too.
Lexical stylistic device is such type of denoting phenomena that serves to create additional expressive, evaluative, subjective connotations. In fact we deal with the intended substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries, prompted by the speakers subjective original view and evaluation of things. Each type of intended substitution results in a stylistic device called also a trope.
This act of substitution is referred to transference the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their similarity (of shape, color, function, etc.) or closeness (of material existence, cause/effect, instrument/result, part/whole relations, etc.).
Lexical stylistic devices
The most frequently used, well known and elaborated among lexical stylistic devices is a metaphor transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, as in the “pancake”, “ball” for the “sky” or “silver dust”, “sequins” for “stars”. So there exist a similarity based on one or more common semantic component. And the wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected the more expressive is the metaphor. If a metaphor involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects, we deal with personification, as in the “face of London” or “the pain of the ocean”.
Metaphor, as all other lexical stylistic devices, is fresh, original, genuine when first used, and trite, hackneyed, stale when...