HISTORY OF BOWLING
The history of bowling can be traced back to the Stone Age. The first evidence of the game was discovered by the British Anthropologist Sir Flinders Petrie and his team of archaeologists in Egypt in the 1930s. He unearthed a collection of objects from a small childs grave that appeared to have been the primitive form of the game. However, some argue that the game evolved much later than that. William Pehle, a German historian, claimed that the game of bowling originated in Germany around 300 AD. In Germany, the game had its origin as a religious ceremony for determining absence of sin.
This game, introduced by the German monks to the masses, flourished as a customary test of faith. In England, bowling was started as early as the 1100s. Throughout England, several variations of bowling, such as half-bowls, skittles and ninepins, existed during the mid 1300s. But, the first written mention of the game was made by the King Edward III in the year 1366. In this reference, he allegedly imposed a ban on playing this game among his troops because it was distracting the troops from archery practice. Later, during the regime of King Henry VIII, the game gained popularity and was played as a symbol of nobility and social status. Bowling has been popular in America since Colonial days. During 17th century, English, Dutch and German settlers imported their own version of bowling to America. At that time, the game consisted of nine pins which were regularly played in an area of New York City still known as "Bowling Green". Connecticut banned ninepins in 1841 because of their gambling implications. The American Bowling Congress was formed on 9 September 1895 and is credited with standardizing bowling in the United States and organizing official competition. The Women's Bowling League followed in 1917, under the encouragement of proprietor Dennis Sweeny. Through the years, the game has changed. A variety of tactics have been developed. The invention of automatic pinspotter in the 1940s revolutionized both the bowling game and industry. Currently, the sport of bowling is enjoyed by 95 million people in more than ninety countries worldwide.
BASIC RULES AND REGULATIONS
A game of tenpin bowling is divided into ten rounds which is called as “frames”. In a frame, each player is given two opportunities to knock down the skittle targets (pins). The player rolls the first ball at the pins. If the first ball knocks down all ten pins, it is called a “strikes” and the frame is completed. When pins are left standing after the first ball, those that are knocked down are counted and then removed. Then the player rolls a second ball and if all the remaining pins are knocked down, it is called a “spares”. There are bonuses for removing all the pins. If there is more than one player scheduled on a lane, play passes to the next player until all players have completed the frame. Then play continues with the next frame. The final or tenth frame of a game may involve three balls. Members of competing teams, doubles and single entrants shall successively and in regular order bowl one frame on one lane, and for the next frame alternate and use the other lane until five frames are bowled on each lane of the pair. FOUL DEFINITIONS
A foul occurs when a part of the player’s person encroaches on or goes beyond the foul line and touches any part of the lane, equipment or building during or after a delivery. When a player deliberately fouls to benefit by the calling of a foul, the player shall be credited with zero pin fall for that delivery and not allowed further deliveries in that frame. When a foul is recorded the delivery counts but the player is not credited with any pins knocked down by that delivery. Pins knocked down by the ball when the foul occurred must be re-spotted if the player who...
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