Tele Immersion

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Technologies for Virtual Reality/Tele-Immersion Applications: Issues of Research in Image Display and Global Networking Tom DeFanti, Dan Sandin, Maxine Brown, Dave Pape, Josephine Anstey, Mike Bogucki, Greg Dawe, Andy Johnson Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) University of Illinois at Chicago 851 S. Morgan St., Room 1120 Chicago, IL 60607-7053 USA tom@uic.edu Thomas S. Huang Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 405 N. Mathew Ave. Urbana, IL 61801 USA huang@ifp.uiuc.edu

Table of Contents
1. 2. Abstract Issues 2.A. Background: Projection-Based VR Technologies 2.B. Issues in Tele-Immersion Development 2.C. Challenges of Tele-Immersion Correspondences/Dependencies: Tele-Immersive Device Design Concepts 3.A. Motivation for Desktop/Office-Sized VR Display Devices 3.B. New Immersive Display Technologies 3.C. ImmersaDesk3 3.D. Personal Augmented Reality Immersive System (PARIS) 3.E. CyberCeilings, designed for the Last Unused Projection Surface 3.F. Personal Penta Panel (P3) or Dilbert’s Dream 3.G. Totally Active Work Space (TAWS) 3.H. CAVEscope: Simulating Variable Resolution Displays Questions for the Future Acknowledgments References Cited Biography 1 2 2 3 4 7 7 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15

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1. Abstract
The Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) has developed an aggressive program over the past decade to partner with scores of computational scientists and engineers all over the world. The focus of this effort has been to create visualization and virtual reality (VR) devices and applications for collaborative exploration of scientific and engineering data. Since 1995, our research and development activities have incorporated emerging high bandwidth networks like the vBNS and its international connection point STAR TAP, in an effort now called tele-immersion. As a result of eight years’ experience building first and second-generation projection-based VR devices to support these applications, we wish to describe needed research in third-generation VR devices aimed at desktop/officesized displays. Since no current projection technology is yet configurable with ideal resolution and size, we must first describe the variety of emerging display devices, such as large color plasma displays, LCD projectors, LED panels, Digital Light Valves (DLVs), Grating Light Valves (GLVs), and Digital Micro Mirror Displays (DMDs ).

EC/NSF Workshop on Research Frontiers in Virtual Environments and Human-Centered Computing, June 1-4, 1999, Chateau de Bonas, France1

In 1991, we conceived and over several years developed the CAVE virtual reality theater, a room-sized, highresolution, projection-based system that enables users to experience excellent immersion in full 3D imagery. We then developed the ImmersaDesk, a smaller, software-compatible, drafting-table-format version of the CAVE that has been deployed to dozens of locations, nationally and internationally, at government institutions, national laboratories, universities, and companies. The hardware now needs to be made smaller, higher resolution and more adaptable to the human and his/her workspace. Middleware that manages connections, bandwidth and latency needs to be integrated with the computer systems driving these hardware devices. Software that increases the quality of human-computer interaction through human output recognition must be brought from specialized lab experiments to routine use, and provided as part of the tele-immersive collaborative experience. This paper discusses many of the issues at the heart of this research.

2. Issues 2.A. Background: Projection-Based VR Technologies

The CAVE™ is a multi-person, room-sized, high-resolution, 3D video and audio environment. Graphics are projected in stereo onto three walls and the floor, and viewed with stereo glasses. As a viewer wearing a location sensor moves within its display...
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