Prof. Albert Mehrabian (UCLA, 1967)http://www.presentationmagazine.com/the-mehrabian-myth-898.htm identified three major parts that convey meaning in human face to face communication: body language, voice tonality, and words. He conducted research to determine how people make meaning when a speaker says one thing but means another. If the speaker is sending a mixed message the listener will rely on the following cues to determine true meaning:Mehrabian and Ferris (1967). "Inference of Attitude from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels". In: ''The Journal of Counseling Psychology'' Vol.31, 1967, pp.248-52. * 55% of impact is determined by body language—postures, gestures, and eye contact, * 38% by the tone of voice, and
* 7% by the content or the words spoken.
Mehrabian says this only applies in situations where the speaker is talking about feelings or attitudes.
Although the exact percentage of influence may differ due to variables such as the perceptions or biases of the listener and the speaker, communication as a whole is meant to convey meaning and thus, in some cases, can be universal. A system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or [[writing|written]] symbols can communicate thoughts or feelings. If a language employs communicating with signals, voice, sounds, gestures, or written symbols, can animal communications be considered to be a language? Animals do not have a written form of a language, but use a language to communicate with each another. In that sense, animal communication can be considered as a separate language.
[[Human]] spoken and written languages can be described as a [[system]] of [[symbol]]s (sometimes known as [[lexeme]]s) and the [[grammar]]s ([[wiktionary:rule|rule]]s) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages. [[Language acquisition|Language learning]] is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of [[sound]] or [[gesture]] for symbols which enable communication with others around them. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions.
There is [[Dialect#.22Dialect.22 or .22language.22|no defined line]] between a language and a [[dialect]], but the linguist [[Max Weinreich]] is credited as saying that "[[a language is a dialect with an army and a navy]]". [[Constructed language]]s such as [[Esperanto]], [[programming language]]s, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
[[Nonverbal communication]] is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless [[message]]s. Such messages can be communicated through [[gesture]], [[body language]] or [[posture]]; [[facial expression]] and eye contact, object communication such as [[clothing]], [[hairstyles]] or even [[architecture]], or symbols and [[infographics]], as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as [[behavioral communication]]. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements.
Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as [[paralanguage]], including voice quality, emotion and speaking style,...