I Time Study
It is a technique which enables the manager to ascertain standard time taken for performing a specified job. Every job or every part of it is studied in detail.
This technique is based on the study of an average worker having reasonable skill and ability. Average worker is selected and assigned the job and then with the help of a stop watch, time is ascertained for performing that particular job. Taylor maintained that Fair day’s work should be determined through observations, experiment and analysis by keeping in view an average worker. Standard Time × Working Hours = Fair Day’s Work
II Motion Study :
In this study, movement of body and limbs required to perform a job are closely observed. In other words, it refers to the study of movement of an operator on machine involved in a particular task. The purpose of motion study is to eliminate useless motions and determine the bet way of doing the job. By undertaking motion study an attempt is made to know whether some elements of a job can be eliminated combined or their sequence can be changed to achieve necessary rhythm. Motion study increases the efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down all wasteful motions.
III Functional Foremanship
Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification. This technique was developed to improve the quality of work as single supervisor may not be an expert in all the aspects of the work. Therefore workers are to be supervised by specialist foreman. The scheme of functional foremanship is an extension of principle pf specialization at the supervisory level. Standardization
It implies the physical attitude of products should be such that it meets the requirements & needs of customers. Taylor advocated that tools & equipments as well as working conditions should be standardized to achieve standard output from workers. Standardization is a means of achieving...