UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Introduction - Need for quality - Evolution of quality - Definition of quality - Dimensions of manufacturing and service quality - Basic concepts of TQM - Definition of TQM – TQM Framework - Contributions of Deming, Juran and Crosby – Barriers to TQM.
Introduction The definition of quality depends on the role of the people defining it. Most consumers have a difficult time defining quality, but they know it when they see it. For example, although you probably have an opinion as to which manufacturer of
athletic shoes provides the highest quality, it would probably be difficult for you to define your quality standard in precise terms. Also, your friends may have different opinions regarding which athletic shoes are of highest quality. The difficulty in defining quality exists regardless of product, and this is true for both manufacturing and service organizations. Think about how difficult it may be to define quality for products such as airline services, child day-care facilities, college classes, or even textbooks.
Today, there is no single universal definition of quality. Some people view quality as ―performance to standards.‖Others view it as ―meeting the customer’s needs‖ or ―satisfying the customer.‖ Let’s look at some of the more common definitions of quality.
Need for Quality Management :
By definition of ISO (Int'l Org. for Standardization) - TQM is a mgmt approach for an org.
which is centered on quality and is based on the participation of all members to aim at long-term success thru customer satisfaction (main) and also to its members and the society in whole.
TQM in Large-scale industries:
- Reduction in wastage: TQM ensures things are done rite the 1st time, so this reduces wastage and defects. - Quality Assurance: TQM guarantees that all the products and even operations in the org. are of a certain quality standard. This promotes trust to the consumers and also maintains a healthy environment for employees.
- Customer-based: TQM focuses on the needs of the customers and can be used effectively, o make changes to the existing product design to meet such needs.
Failure Analysis: TQM is a statistical tool also. Hence provides a learned person with the faults and failures in various process. This in turn can be used to make corrective progress. Definition of quality
Today, there is no single universal definition of quality. Some people view quality as ―performance to standards.‖Others view it as ―meeting the customer’s needs‖ or ―satisfying the customer.‖ Let’s look at some of the more common definitions of quality. • Conformance to specifications measures how well the product or servic meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers. For example, the dimensions of a machine part may be specified by its design engineers as 3.05 inches. This would mean that the target dimension is 3 inches but the dimensions can vary between 2.95 and 3.05 inches. Similarly, the wait for hotel room service may be specified as 20 minutes, but there may be an acceptable delay of an additional 10 minutes. Also, consider the amount of light delivered by a 60 watt light bulb. If the bulb delivers 50 watts it does not conform to specifications. As these examples illustrate, conformance to specification is directly measurable, though it may not be directly related to the consumer’s idea of quality.
• Fitness for use focuses on how well the product performs its intended function or use. For example, a Mercedes Benz and a Jeep Cherokee both meet a fitness for use definition if one considers transportation as the intended function. However, if the definition becomes more specific and assumes that the intended use is for transportation on mountain roads and carrying fishing gear, the Jeep...