MEETINGS AND TEAMS
Conflict and Interventions
The Phenomenon of Meetings
Primary and Secondary Tension
Counterproductive Group Tendencies
Making Interventions Work
Sue DeWine “Value of Meetings”
Roy Berko and Andrew & Darlyn Wolvin “Primary & Secondary Tension” Irving Janis (1971) “GroupThink”
Solomon Asch “The Asch Effect”
Judith Martin & Tom Nakayama (2010) also Steven Beebe, Susan Beebe and Diana Ivy (2001)“Ethnocentrism” Roger Mosvick & Robert Nelson (1996) “Inadequate/Hidden Agendas Katherine Adams & Gloria Galanes (2009) “Brainstorming” Andre Delbecq, Andrew H. Van de Ven (1975) “Nominal Group Technique”
DYNAMICS OF TEAMS AND MEETINGS
What is a team?
A team can be defined as two or more individuals who socially interact; possess one or more common goal; are brought together to perform organizationally relevant tasks; have different roles and responsibilities.
Types of Meetings:
1. Standing Meeting-A regularly scheduled appointment, such as a weekly one-on-one with a boss or department; or a project meeting taking place at intervals until the project is over. At times they can be rescheduled. 2. Topical Meeting-A gathering called to discuss one subject, such as a work issue or a task related to a project. 3. Presentation-A highly structured meeting where one or more people speak and a moderator leads the proceedings. The purpose is usually to inform. Attendees may have the opportunity to ask questions but typically their participation is limited. 4. Conference (Calls or Videoconferences)-A highly structured, moderated meeting like a presentation, where various participants contribute following a fixed agenda. 5. Emergency Meeting-A meeting called to address a crisis, whether internal or external. Such meetings are often arranged with very little notice but attendance is mandatory. If the emergency meeting conflicts with another appointment, the emergency meeting typically takes precedence. 6. Seminar- A structured meeting with an educational purpose. These are usually led by people with an expertise in the subject matter.
THE PHENOMENON OF MEETINGS
People often have negative attitudes about meetings (pg. 182-183) Meetings are “usually thought of as time wasters (Sue DeWine, 2001) “If you had to identify, in one word, the reason why the human race has not achieved, and never will achieve, it’s full potential, that one word would be meetings. (Dave Barry, 1985)
Values of Meetings:- Four reasons for meetings (DeWine)
1. To announce organizational changes and keep employees up to date 2. To produce solutions and to increase the number of different solutions to organizational problems 3. To gain “buy-in” or acceptance of a decision through participation 4. To “cultivate members as individuals” and create group cohesion
PRIMARY & SECONDARY TENSION
Why communication problems in teams tend to surface?
(Roy Berko and Andrew & Darlyn Wolvin, 1998)
Primary Tension: The normal jitters and feelings of uneasiness experienced when groups first congregate
Causes of Primary Tension: (pg.183-184)
* They fear that this group will be a team in name only and therefore they will have to carry a disproportionate burden of the team responsibilities * They’re unaware of the topic for the meeting and are anxious because they imagine potential topics might make them uncomfortable. * They are concerned that the meeting will result in an assignment outside of their of their range of abilities * Their experience in teams or with this particular team, has been negative * There are personal issues that are pressing that make concentrated group work difficult.
Secondary Tension: The stress and strain that occurs in a group later in it development.
Types of Secondary Tension:(pg.184-186)
1. Procedural: Stem from feelings that the process of interacting in the group is...