Job design is the process of deciding which tasks and responsibilities will be undertaken by a particular employee. It also covers the methods, systems and procedures for the work. In today’s business environment, proper job design can help a company to become more successful and competitive in the market. “The theory of job design, as we know it today, rests largely on the premise that effective performance and genuine satisfaction in work follow mainly from the intrinsic content of the job”(Cooper, 1974,p.12) The team approach has the ability to fulfill these criteria. “Teamwork is described as a co-operative process that allows ordinary people to achieve extraordinary results” (Scarnati, 2001, p.5). “By sharing a common goal or vision, the team can accomplish what individuals cannot do alone” (Scarnati, 2001, p.6). As teams attempt to accomplish a number of tasks and functions, some of the tasks may not fall into any of the individual’s present job scopes. In an ideal situation, teamwork can combine the intelligence, experience, knowledge, skills and commitments of the team members into a more powerful drive. Depending on the task, technology involved, the organization’s structure and how the team is formed in regard to authority, communication, attitudes, behaviors and expectations of people involved, a team can be ineffective for both the individual employees and the organization. This essay will investigate the causes and effects of teams that do not perform at high level automatically, and discuss the possibility of developing a more effective team.
Factor: To be a high performance team
Although teams are not suitable for every business situation, this essay will outline the key factors required to form a team that performs at high level automatically, which will strengthen an organization in its competitive business environment.
One reason why teams may perform automatically at a high level is that if members are well-matched. Their strengths enhance their motivation, accuracy and productivity. “The structure of work group or team provides many of the factors that are central to the motivation of individuals” (Sinclair,1992, p.620). When each member is allowed to contribute his or her own blend of conviction, beliefs, experience and strengths, the total outcomes are positive and beneficial to all involved. Just imagine if one person in the team is very creative. This would lead the process of coming up with ideas; another one is detailed-oriented who can do the initial research. The third person, who is good at graphic software, can pull all those skills together to end up with a much better result than an individual’s performance. As people work in a team, they allow the combining their skills and talents with others to create new approaches to solving problems. As a result, the work performance through teams will lead to higher productivity level than an individual’s hard work. One example of this is how Kodak uses team work to make work more productive. In 1990’s, a cross-functional team became a part of Chrysler’s new auto design team. This team consisted of marketing, design, engineering and manufacturing personnel. With the creation of this new team, Chrysler was able to cut more than a year from design-to-manufacture time, yet produced what outside experts rate as the highest quality vehicle Chrysler has produced (Sashkin, 1994, p.40). The example shows that a diverse team is more efficient if team members can contribute their strengthens and work well together.
Upgrade Job Skill
In addition to making a team more productive, improved individual knowledge and skill may generate high team performance levels automatically. “Utilising a team approach can enlarge and enrich the information, knowledge and power an individual possesses. Many groups are brought...