Teaching Vocabulary

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Introductionp. 3-4

Part 1. General Principles in Teaching Vocabularyp. 5

1.1. What need to be taughtp. 5

1.2. Criteria for selecting and vocabulary exercisesp.

1.3. Receptive and productivep.

1.4. Grouping of items of vocabularyp.

1.5. The amount of items to teachp.

Part 2. Presenting vocabularyp.

2.1. Traditional techniques for presenting vocabularyp.

2.1.1. Visual techniquesp.

2.1.2. Verbal techniquesp.

2.1.3. Translationp.

2.2. Student-centered learningp.

Part 3. Practicing vocabularyp.

3.1. Using visual aidsp.

3.2. Lexical exercisesp.

3.3. Speaking exercisesp.

3.4. Gamesp.

Part 4. Testing vocabularyp.

4.1. Exercises for testingp.

4.2. Assessmentp.



The research essay deals with the problem of teaching vocabulary on the topic environment. Teaching English vocabulary is an important area worthy of effort and investigation. Recently methodologists and linguists emphasize and recommend teaching vocabulary because of its importance in language teaching. There are many studies that reinforce the key role of vocabulary size on reading and writing skills, especially on native speakers. Laufer in an analysis of the vocabulary of Israeli students, established that a good vocabulary size was important for reading comprehension and for fluency in speech. Goulden claimed that "measures of vocabulary size -particularly the size of academic vocabulary- are important indicators of the ability of second language learners to achieve academic success". Anderson and Freebody found out that there was a high correlation between a good performance in a vocabulary test and reading comprehension. Different research studies have also concentrated on tracking the development of vocabulary knowledge of language learners from different perspectives. Within this trend, we can identify several main groups: those studies that have addressed vocabulary acquisition of young learners in their native language, and those that deal with foreign language development. Among vocabulary acquisition studies, some focus attention on the development of depth of vocabulary knowledge (Harmer, Carlisle, Moya Guijarro, Triguero, Barrientos,). Some other studies deal with how receptive vocabulary evolves with time and proficiency (Armayor, Averril, García Hoz, Smith,), and finally, some other studies address the issue of receptive vocabulary size at specific moments of development (Dolch, D’Anna, Zechmeister, Hall, Goulden, Nation, Read, Waring, Shibles,). The object of our research is teaching vocabulary on the topic environment. The aim of the paper is to analyse various techniques on teaching vocabulary on the topic environment taking into consideration three main levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) of teaching English as a foreign language. Most of the examples were taken from different books taking into consideration elementary, intermediate and advanced levels of teaching. Of course, the topic is quite extensive and one cannot say that all possible vocabulary teaching techniques are represented here equally, but the most prominent ones are given due attention in the present paper. Due to the restrictions of space some of the practical examples were not given for each of the levels but only for those they are mostly typical for. The essay consists of introduction, four parts, conclusion and bibliography. Part 1 deals with general considerations concerning what needs to be taught, receptive and productive vocabulary and the criteria for selecting vocabulary and vocabulary exercises. The questions of vocabulary items grouping and how many items to teach are viewed. Part 2 is devoted to the problems connected with presenting vocabulary. The attention is concentrated on the traditional techniques and student centered learning. In Part 3...
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