Teaching Speaking

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORT OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

Speaking and Writing. Common and Distinctive features in Teaching

PRESENTED BY
Suzan Al-Jholani
a fifth year student of the English Department

SUPERVISED BY Sanotska L.G. associate professor
of the English Department

LVIV 2012
Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….3 I. Common features in teaching speaking and writing………………………………..3 II. Distinctive features in teaching speaking and writing………………………………… Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. References………………………………………………………………………………

Communication between humans is an extremely complex and ever-changing phenomenon. But there are certain generalizations that can be made about the majority of communicative events and these will have a particular relevance for the learning and teaching of languages. There are countless reasons for communication between individuals: they want to say something, they have some communicative purpose, they want to get some information, etc. It is important to realize that these generalizations do not only apply to spoken word: they characterize written communication as well. Speaking and writing are called productive skills because they involve language production, as opposed to listening and reading, which are receptive skills [1, 46-47]. Common features in teaching speaking and writing

The productive skills of writing and speaking have more distinctive than common features. However, there are number of language production processes which have to be gone through whichever medium we are working in. In order for communication to be successful we have to structure our discourse in such a way that it will be understood by our listeners and readers. In speech this often involves following of conversational patterns and the use of lexical phrases. For the part of writing it has to be both coherent and cohesive. Coherent writing makes sense because you can follow the sequence of ideas and points. Cohesion is more technical matter since it is here that we concentrate on the various linguistic ways of connecting ideas across phrases and sentences [2, 246]. Both teaching writing and speaking involves following the rules of communication. There are three areas of rules that should be considered: * Sociocultural rules: speakers from similar social backgrounds know how to speak to each other in terms of how formal to be, what kind of language they can use, how loud to speak, or how close to stand to each other. * Turn-taking: in any conversation decisions have to be taken about when each person should speak. * Rules for writing: writing has rules too, which need to be recognized and either be followed or purposively flouted. We have to take into the account the genre and the style of writing [2, 246]. One of the reasons that people can operate within sociocultural rules is because they know about different styles, and recognize different written and spoken genres. This depends on the aim of communication, on the recipient and setting. In order to speak and write at different levels of intimacy students need practice in different genres and different styles so that their level increases they can vary the grammar, functions ,and lexis that they can use .It is vital, therefore, that if the coursebook does not offer a satisfactory range of such genre-based activities teachers should supply...
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