Teaching Reading to English Language Learners

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Teaching reading to English Language Leaners requires some strategies and preparations on the part of teachers, which includes the preparation of the lesson plan. However, an effective lesson plan teaching reading to English Second Language (ESL) students or English Foreign Language (EFL) students requires having a structure (Teaching Reading to ESL Students to Teaching ESL to Adult, NY). The good news though about teaching reading to English Language Learners (ELLs) according to Colorin Colorado (2008) is that teachers need not to learn an entirely new method. Teachers can and should use what they already know to be effective, which she described as a research-based reading instruction. Additional support in learning how to read may be needed by teachers.

On the other hand, The Education Alliance (2006) reveals there is a general agreement that becoming a proficient reader in a second language is a difficult task. Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998) and August and Hakuta (1997) underscore the enormous cognitive challenge faced by young ELLs who must acquire oral and literacy skills in English simultaneously. (Garcia, 2000) adds that ELLs who are ready literate in a home language are able to transfer some of their skills for use in English reading, but that doesn’t imply that learning to read well in English will be an easy task. Reading involves the use of both “higher level cognitive knowledge, … abilities … and learning strategies,” as well as “low level linguistic knowledge and processing strategies “.Throughout the elementary grades, ELLs are likely to encounter difficulties with both “high” and “low” levels of the reading process, especially as they tackle increasingly complex readings.

Moreover, Ehri(1998) states that knowledge of the relationships between sound and letters essential for learning to read English. However, the work of Verhoeven’s (1999) cautions teachers that it is unrealistic to expect ELLs to decode words independently until they are familiar with the sound system of English. To help ELLs become adept at using sound-letters relationships, Birch (2002) recommends practice in a variety of tasks such as: (a) identifying a particular phoneme in words, (d) discriminating between that phoneme and similar ones, (c) Linking the sound to the printed letters, (d) visually discriminating the letter from other visually similar letters, (e) recognizing and printing the letter in both upper and lowercase form, (f) finding the letter at the beginning s ending of words alone and in connected text, and (g) drawing things that begin with the letter and labeling them. Other teaching suggestions provided by (Antunez, 2002; Kaufman & Franco, 2004) include (a) playing games with rhyming words, and alliterative words to develop students’ awareness of how sounds combine to form words, and (b) in the case of Spanish-speaking ELLs, building upon the similarities and differences between the sound systems of the two languages.

Indeed there is a vast of ways and differences on how teaching reading to English Language Learners can be done. However, achieving a greater knowledge and awareness of these would be an advantage especially for teachers aiming to better address the various needs and difficulties of their struggling English Language Learners. It is therefore in this context that this study was deemed necessary. 1.2 Statement of the problem

This study attempted to explore the teaching of reading English Language Learners. Specifically, it ought to answer the following questions: 1. What strategies are recommended for teaching reading to English Language Learners? 2. What are the steps used to prepare an effective lesson plan for teaching reading skills? 3. What problems do English Language Learners usually encounter in learning reading? 1.3 Objectives of the study

This study aimed to achieve the following objectives;
1. To describe...
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