As helper and guide Teacher‘s role to put a child in real life situation, so that he might be able to understand his life‘s problems and there by solve them. Doing is more important than knowing, the pragmatic teacher wants his pupil to think and act for themselves to do rather than to know, to originate rather than to repeat. Teaching should not be based on lecturing and repeating only. The teacher should create a problem solving attitude in his pupils. Discipline:
Pragmatism believes in Social discipline. Project method deals with all such essentials. They believe that play and work should be combined and this combination will perform a mental attitude – discipline, inner discipline cannot be maintained through force and domination. Discipline comes through purposive & cooperative activities. Role of Teacher : According to the existentialists the teacher creates an educational situation in which the student may establish contact with himself, become conscious of it and achieve self – realization. This requires existential approach in the teacher himself. He should also have an experience of self – realization so that he may be capable of guiding the students in this process. The teacher‘s role is to help students define their 81 own essence by exposing them to various paths they may take in life and creating an environment in which they may freely choose their own preferred way. Existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is selfpaced, self directed, and includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. The student : The student should feel completely free for realizing his self‘. Under the guidance of the teacher, the student should try to realize his ‗self‘ through introversion. The student accepts the discipline prescribed by the teacher and does not become irresponsible. The purpose of freedom given to him should be to enable him to effect the full development of his individuality.
Critical Evaluation: Some critics (mainly traditionalists or Conservatives) claim that existentialism as philosophy for the schools has limited application because education in our society, and in most other modern societies, involves institutionalized learning and socialization, which require group instruction, restriction on individual behaviour and bureaucratic organization. Schooling is a process that limits students‘ freedom and that is based on adult authority and on the norms and beliefs of the mass or common culture. The individual existentialist, exerting his or her will and choice will encounter difficulty in school – and in other large, formal organizations. Role of Teacher: Integrated Educator
If a lamp doesn‘t burn itself, it cannot light other lamps. If the teacher himself / herself is not an integrated personality, we cannot expect him to help the children become integrated personalities. PLATO: Plato recommended play method at elementary level; student should learn by doing. And when he/she reaches the higher level of education, his reason would be trained in the processes of thinking and abstracting. Plato wanted a place where children love to go and stay there and they play with things which enhance their education by playing. Plato gave importance to nursery education, as nursery education plays a vital role in the education of man and it helps to build his moral character and state of mind "The most important part of education is proper training in the nursery." In Plato‘s view, Storytelling is the main tool for the formation of character. Stories should provide models for children to imitate, and as ideas taken in at an early age become indelibly fixed, the creation of fables and legends for children, true or fictional, is to be strictly supervised. Mothers and nurses are not to scare young children with stories of lamentations, monsters, and the horrors of hell, to avoid making cowards of them....