°°°°°°°°°°°°°°GTM grammar translation method
GT appeared in the first half of the 19th century and was one of the nonscientific methods. Why is GT a classical method? GT was to help students appreciate L2 literature. L2 grammar helps them learn Ll grammar & grow mentally.
1. Learning to read L2 literature – written language is superior to spoken language. L2 culture was literature and fine arts. 2. Translation from L2 to L1 and vise versa: a central goal
3. Communication: not emphasized
4. Reading and writing: superior
5. Authority and fussy corrections
6. L1 equivalents for L2 words
7. L1/ L2 similarities: emphasized
8. Form superior to content
9. Deduction over Induction
10. L2 learning: a mental exercise
11. Explicit and conscious knowledge of L2 Grammar
12. Memorization of grammatical paradigms
* Translation of a literary passage * Reading comprehension questions * Antonyms/synonyms * Cognates : * Deductive application of rule
| * Fill-in-the-blank * Memorization * Use words in sentences * Composition
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°DM direct method
DM is a movement toward a scientific method. Gouin started a method based on child language acquisition. The weaknesses of GT made DM very popular. Basic principle: The use of L1 is sin and the connection between L2 and meaning should be direct.
1. Language is mainly speech. Culture includes more than fine arts. Reading is taught from the beginning. 2. Concrete objects are used to make the direct link between form (language) and meaning. 3. Mother tongue has almost no role.
4. Demonstration is preferred to explanation and translation. 5. Vocabulary in use is emphasized to boost thinking in English. (Real use in real sentences) 6. Oral communication is the goal.
7. Pronunciation receives primary attention - focus on form. 8. Self-correction is preferred to teacher’s correction.
9. Lessons should provide the chances for real life conversation. * Reading aloud * Question and answer exercise * Getting students to self-correct * Conversation practice
| * Fill-ln-the-blank exercise * Dictation *
Map drawing *
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°ALM audio lingual method
The Audio-lingual Method (ALM) was developed in the U. S. during World War II. Why? Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) is the first scientific method since it has roots in both psychology and linguistics.
1. Form appears inside the context, not in isolation. For example, a dialogue is used to introduce a new structure. 2. L1 and L2 have two systems and they are treated differently to avoid interference. 3. The teacher is the model. His native-like accent does matter. 4. Language learning is habit formation and habits should be repeated to get fixed in mind. 5. Errors are barriers for habit formation (inhibition). 6. Communication is the prior goal.
7. A sentence includes several slots and each slot needs a special part of speech. 8. Positive reinforcement is preferred to no/negative reinforcement. Techniques:
* Use of minimal pairs
* Dialogue memorization * Backward build up drills * Repetition drills * Chain drills
| * Single-slot substitution drills * Multiple slot substitution drills * Transformation drills * Question and answer drills
°°°°°°°°°°°°°°The Silent Way
1. Human is creative, so mimicry, memorization, repetition and parrot learning (Behaviorism) do not lead to real learning. 2. Language is not confined to a limited number of structures (as opposed to Structuralism). Best evidence: new sentences that children make in early life. 3. Language learning is not the outcome of habit formation (Behaviorism). It is the process of creative rule formation (Cognitive Psychology). 4. Cognitive psychology puts more emphasis on thoughtful, mentalist and creative processes. Learners form hypothesis to discover the rules of...
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