Teaching Methods

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Parts of a Lesson Plan
What is a Lesson Plan?
A lesson plan is organized and Time-bound. It is simply a teacher’s “plan” for teaching a lesson. Its purpose is to outline the “program” for a single lesson. The Importance of having a Lesson Plan

1. It allows you to manage your time, effort, and resources efficiently. 2. Lesson plans helps you get rid of problems or avoid them. 3. It definitely improves your teaching skills.
Parts of a Lesson Plan
1. Heading/Header- Teacher‘s name, Course name, Lesson number, topic, and page number, Time allotment, Grade level 2. Materials- for example, Books, Colored Pencils, Handouts, Powerpoint Presentations. 3. Procedures-

* Introduction- Labels learning, Involves students, Relates to real life, Relates to prior knowledge. * Instructions- Things you will do to teach material, Things students will do to reach objectives. * Closing- Should seek student input.

4. Independent Work- Exercises/projects student will work on during the given period of time. Homework to complete outside the class. 5. Assessments
* Formal- Quiz, Test etc.
* Informal- Question-and-Answer session.
6. Reflection- What work and what didn’t?

Characteristics of a Lesson Plan:
A. Specific- It should be definite. A teacher should know what she will teach and how she will teach it. He/she should be specific on the procedures that he/she will do inside the class. B. Measurable- It should give significant information. As a teacher, he/she should know the important information in her lesson. C. Attainable and Realistic- A good lesson plan must consist of goals that are attainable and possible to accomplish at the end of the given time. D. Time-bound- What is the time limit for a lesson? How much time do you intend to give to teaching the students?


Pronunciation Teaching and Theories:
Can Pronunciation be taught?
“…it is not that adults should be denied pronunciation training, but that learners of different ages may respond differently, both emotionally and cognitively, to different kinds of teaching approaches and task types…” (Brown, 1992)

“The implication for materials is not that pronunciation should be ignored, but that pronunciation teaching methods should more fully address the issues of motivation and exposure by creating an awareness of the importance of pronunciation and providing more exposure to input from native speakers.”

“Listening and repeating seem to be a two-way street: Focused listening can improve oral production and practice in oral production can improve auditory perception…” (Pennington, 1996)
Assumptions about Oral Communication:
A. Speaking usually involves two or more people who use language for interactional or transactional purposes. B. Spoken language imparts referential and affective meaning. C. Native-like speech, especially for adult learners, takes time. D. Not all ‘problems’ will be at the level of production; some will be associated with perception. E. Learners need to have some understanding of the role phonology plays in language learning.

Learning Strategies:
STEP 1: Setting the Context
* Have learners some idea of the role phonology plays in Spoken English. * Initiate activities to help them improve their speaking throughout the course.

STEP 2: Diagnosing Learner’s Spoken English
identify individual learner ‘problems’ and those common to the group.
SUPRASEGMENTAL- General Speaking Habits, Intonation, Stress and Rhythm
SEGMENTAL- Consonants, Vowel

Selecting the Context
Incorporate Phonology into ESL Lessons.
B. Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read and write.
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