Teaching Assistant Diploma Unit 2

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Assignment 2

1. Briefly outline the social and emotional development of children from birth to age sixteen and the influences that might affect development.

When observing the development of a child or baby it is important to remember..

-Every child is a unique individual with their own characteristics and temperament. -Development is a continuous, complex interaction of environmental and genetic factors in which the body, brain and behaviour become more complex. -Babies and children mature at different rates and at different times in their lives. -Babies and children are vulnerable and become resilient and confident if they have support from others. -Early relationships strongly influence how children develop and having close relationships with carers is very important.

Stages of development

At Birth
•depend on parents/carers
•sleeps a lot
•likes to be undisturbed
•have rooting, sucking and swallowing reflexes
•cry when hungry, unattended to or in pain
•startle to noise, and turn to light, providing it is not too bright.

1 Month
•cry for their needs to be attended to
•will turn to mother's breast
•briefly looks at a face
•sleeps most of the time when not being handled or fed
•grasp a finger if the hand is opened and the palm is touched •will quieten or smile in response to your voice.

2 Months
•explore using their five senses
•sleep less during the day and more during the night
•stop crying when they are picked up
•differentiate between objects, and begin to tell one face from another •follow your face when it moves
•smile and become more responsive to others.

3 Months
•use sounds to interact socially and reach out to human face •respond to friendly handling and smile at most people
•become more oriented to their mother and other carers
•looks at mother's or carer's face when feeding
•are able to show an increasingly wide range of feelings and responses including pleasure, fear, excitement, unhappiness and contentment •have some awareness of the feelings and emotions of others •begin to connect what they hear with what they see.

6 Months
•reach out for familiar people and show a desire to be picked up and held •begin to be more reserved with, or afraid of, strangers
•show a marked preference for their main carer(s)
•like to play peek-a-boo
•smile at their own image in a mirror
•become more aware of themselves in relation to other people and things •look at their hands and feet with interest
•stop crying when communicated with.

9 Months
•show fear of strangers and need reassurance when in their company, often clinging to the known adult and hiding their face in them •play peek-a-boo, copy hand clapping and pat a mirror image •clearly distinguish familiar people and show a marked preference for them •cry for attention to their needs, but also they use their voice to attract people to themselves •put hands around a cup or bottle when feeding

•show pleasure and interest at familiar words
•understand 'No'
•begin to respond to their own name.

12 Months
•can distinguish between different members of the family and act socially with them •will wave goodbye
•like to be within sight and hearing of a familiar adult
•show rage when angry
•know their own name
•will obey simple instructions
•may be shy with strangers
•copy actions and sounds of adults or children.

15 Months

•begin to distinguish between 'you' and 'me', but do not understand that others are individuals just like themselves •can point to members of the family
•tend to show off
•have a sense of 'me' and 'mine' and begin to express themselves •throw toys when angry
•show interest in other children
•show jealously of the attention given by adults to other children •have an interest in strangers, but can be fearful or wary of them •are emotionally changeable and unstable
•hold a cup and drink without assistance
•help with dressing and undressing.

18 Months
•show intense curiosity
•tend to...
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