Teachers play a very important role in achieving the objectives of Vision 2020. Disgruntled teachers who are not satisfied with their job will not be committed and productive. They will not be performing at the best of their capabilities if they are not satisfied. Consequently, not only the teaching profession is in serious risk but the attainment of Vision 2020 will be affected.
The discussion of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction is largely generated from the theory proposed by Herzberg theory that is called “two-factor theory” or “two-hierarchy of needs”. Both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are assumed critical for the organizations to manage since they absolutely affect the productivity as well as the effectiveness of either the teachers or the school organization performance. In order to boost the productivity of teachers in particular and organization in general, it is important to increase the effectiveness of teachers at school, so then they have positive attitudes towards their jobs. Furthermore, the attitudes of teachers towards their jobs and life do have an effect on the grade of job satisfaction they have. Therefore, it is vital and fruitful for the organizations to understand the factors that can generate satisfaction since satisfied teachers can lead to improved moral and this will bring happiness and greater self-realization.
If it is true that government school teachers are dissatisfied, what then are these dissatisfaction? In what aspects are they not satisfied? Is it the principal-teacher; teacher-teacher and the student-teacher relationship? Is it the working environment? Is it the workload and the work pressure, or is it the reward system? Since teachers are individuals who are unique, they are different from one another; their job satisfaction is affected differently by among others; their age, sex, education, and their personal differences. Thus, a clear picture of what job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are assumed to be essential to lead us to identical comprehension and it will be worthy to note their definitions established specifically.
Frederick Herzberg, clinical psychologist and pioneer of 'job enrichment', is regarded as one of the great original thinkers in management and motivational theory. Frederick Herzberg was born in Massachusetts on April 18, 1923. His undergraduate work was at the City College of New York, followed by graduate degrees at the University of Pittsburgh. Herzberg was later Professor of Management at Case Western Reserve University, where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. He moved to the University of Utah's College of Business in 1972, where he was also Professor of Management. He died at Salt Lake City, January 18, 2000.
In the late 1950s, Frederick Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:
1. Think of a time when you felt especially good about your job. Why did you feel that way? 2. Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you feel that way?
From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are two dimensions to job satisfaction: motivation and hygiene. Hygiene issues, according to Herzberg, cannot motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. Hygiene topics include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee's environment. Motivators, on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals' needs for meaning and personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Once the hygiene areas are addressed, said Herzberg, the motivators will promote job...